Status and health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown in industrial areas of Bangladesh

Journal article


Islam, M., Ahmed, W., Rabin, M., H., Razzaque, A., Hasan, M., Siddika, M. and Zamil, S. 2022. Status and health risk assessment of heavy metals in vegetables grown in industrial areas of Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry. https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2022.2118590
AuthorsIslam, M., Ahmed, W., Rabin, M., H., Razzaque, A., Hasan, M., Siddika, M. and Zamil, S.
Abstract

The presence of toxic heavy metals in vegetables is a matter of concern worldwide as they impose significant public health hazards. This study quantified heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in widely consumed vegetables such as red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), radish leaf (Raphanus sativus), brinjal (Solanum melongena), spinach (Spinacia oleracea), bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), carrot (Daucus carota), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) grown in Savar industrial areas of Bangladesh to assess human health risks. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to determine heavy metals in vegetables (n = 96). Studied heavy metals were detected in most vegetable samples, whereas 59.38% and 40.62% of samples contained carcinogenic Pb and Cd higher than the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) maximum allowable concentration (MAC). Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that wastewater irrigation due to anthropogenic activities is the main source of heavy metal contamination in vegetables of the study area. Human health risks were assessed in terms of estimated daily intake (EDI), incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR), target hazard quotient (THQ), and hazard index (HI). EDI values of all heavy metals were lower than the corresponding maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) values. The ILCR values of Pb in most samples (except fenugreek) for children were found above the threshold value (ILCR> 10−4), indicating carcinogenic health effects from lifetime consumption of these vegetables. The THQs of Pb in sample red amaranth and carrot were greater than 1.0, indicating potential non-carcinogenic risks of consuming contaminated vegetables. The HI values of all heavy metals in red amaranth and carrot >1.0 for adults and children, suggesting health hazards from these samples. This study might help policymakers and concerned authorities to implement a strategic plan for safe vegetable production and minimise the health risks of consuming heavy metal contaminated vegetables.

Keywordsheavy metals; health risk assessment ; vegetables ; source analysis; industrial areas
Year2022
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry
PublisherRoutledge - Taylor and Francis
ISSN0306-7319
1029-0397
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2022.2118590
Web address (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03067319.2022.2118590
Output statusPublished
Publication dates01 Sep 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted09 Aug 2022
Deposited14 Sep 2022
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