A Critical Discussion of the Clinical Management of Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Journal article


Chatzinikolaou, Marios Dimitrios and Apeiranthitou., Vasiliki 2021. A Critical Discussion of the Clinical Management of Dietary Supplementation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. EC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY.
AuthorsChatzinikolaou, Marios Dimitrios and Apeiranthitou., Vasiliki
Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are both classified as neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting primarily young children and adolescents, stemming from biological/genetic and environmental origins
that negatively influence neurobiological structures and leading to gastrointestinal discomforts. More precisely, toxins produced
by pathogenic microorganisms’ overgrowth, unnecessary employment of antibiotics, abnormalities in the activity of carbohydrate
digestive enzymes and gut’s mucosal lining disruptions result in alterations in children’s neurological functioning. Central nervous
system alterations adversely affect brain maturation, social interactions, and cognitive abilities. In this respect, dietary supplementations such as omega-3 and omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and/or vitamins can be effectuated, potentially increasing
the effectiveness of pharmacological medications. However, research findings divulge an unspecified consensus concerning optimal
supplementation duration, exact dosages, consistent utilization of outcome measures, adherence to supplements, and their longterm behavioral and health effects. In addition, dietary supplements do not always enable for corrections of children’s micronutrient
deficiencies, contributing to excessive intake. Thus, it can be speculated that they cannot be provided solitarily since they depict
developmental insensitivities in addressing all nutritional needs of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder individuals. Accordingly, each individual’s developmental needs and entire dietary patterns should be carefully considered
for the elimination of comorbid health conditions. In conjunction with the development and validation of universally accepted dietary plan, this shall allow for the construction of a holistic and multidisciplinary approach to dietary treatment schemes that can
fully benefit these populations and are especially adapted to their needs. Future research should further explore gluten/casein-free
and other restrictive diets, along with the clarification of effective randomized controlled trials.

KeywordsAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Central Nervous System
Year2021
JournalEC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY
PublisherECronicon Open Access
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/625702
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
hdl:10545/625702
Publication dates30 Jan 2021
Publication process dates
Deposited09 Apr 2021, 14:49
AcceptedJan 2021
Rights

Attribution 4.0 International

ContributorsUniversity of Derby and University College London
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