Measuring sport fantasy proneness and deflated reality in sport and performance: Development and validation of two context-specific instruments

Journal article


Zhang, S. and Boardley, I. 2023. Measuring sport fantasy proneness and deflated reality in sport and performance: Development and validation of two context-specific instruments. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 69, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2023.102491
AuthorsZhang, S. and Boardley, I.
Abstract

Fantasy-prone personalities and generalized states of pessimism and hopelessness have been linked to various behavioural, cognitive, and health related outcomes in the general population. Nevertheless, to date, knowledge of sport-specific fantasy proneness and athletes’ perception of deflated reality in sport is scarce, possibly due to a lack of appropriate psychometric instruments to examine these two important context-specific constructs. In this research, we developed the Sport Fantasy Proneness Scale (SFPS) and the Deflated Reality in Sport Scale (DRSS), first assessing the content validity of items for the instruments following a rigorous process. Through two cross-sectional samples (Study 1: Sample 1 N = 255, Sample 2 N = 260) and one longitudinal sample (Study 2: Sample 3 N = 118) of competitive athletes in the UK, we then examined factorial, convergent, discriminant, and concurrent validity and measurement invariance (Study 1), as well as internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (Study 2) of the two new scales. Results revealed robust construct validity and reliability of scores on the two instruments and suggested very good invariance when implementing the new scales to athletes from different sports and competitive levels and good invariance for cross-gender comparisons. The new scales fill a gap in the sport psychology literature and provide researchers and practitioners with robust psychometric instruments to examine new research questions and tackle issues relevant to athletes’ sport-specific fantasy proneness and perceptions of deflated reality.

KeywordsSport fantasy; Deflated reality; Scale development; Construct validity; Measurement invariance; Temporal stability
Year2023
JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
Journal citation69, pp. 1-10
PublisherElsevier
ISSN1469-0292
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2023.102491
Web address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029223001152
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online13 Jul 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted10 Jul 2023
Deposited02 Aug 2023
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https://repository.derby.ac.uk/item/q0091/measuring-sport-fantasy-proneness-and-deflated-reality-in-sport-and-performance-development-and-validation-of-two-context-specific-instruments

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