Deep labeller: automatic bounding box generation for synthetic violence detection datasets

Journal article


Nadeem, M., Kurugollu, F., Saravi, S., Atlam, H. and Franqueira, V. 2023. Deep labeller: automatic bounding box generation for synthetic violence detection datasets. Multimedia Tools and Applications. pp. 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-023-15621-5
AuthorsNadeem, M., Kurugollu, F., Saravi, S., Atlam, H. and Franqueira, V.
Abstract

Manually labelling datasets for training violence detection systems is time-consuming, expensive, and labor-intensive. Mind wandering, boredom, and short attention span can also cause labelling errors. Moreover, collecting and distributing sensitive images containing violence has ethical implications. Automation is the future for labelling sensitive image datasets. Deep labeller is a two-stage Deep Learning (DL) method that uses pre-trained DL object detection methods on MS-COCO for automatic labelling. The Deep Labeller method labels violent and nonviolent images in WVD and USI. In stage 1, WVD generates weak labels using synthetic images. In stage 2, the Deep labeller method is retrained on weak labels. USI dataset is used to test our method on real-world violence. Deep labeller generated weak and strong labels with an IoU of 0.80036 in stage 1 and 0.95 in stage 2 on the WVD. Automatically generated labels. To test our method’s generalisation power, violent and nonviolent image labels on USI dataset had a mean IoU of 0.7450.

KeywordsData labelling ; Violence detection ; WVD ; USI ; Synthetic virtual violence
Year2023
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Journal citationpp. 1-18
PublisherSpringer
ISSN1573-7721
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-023-15621-5
Web address (URL)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11042-023-15621-5
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online24 Jun 2023
Publication process dates
Deposited18 Dec 2023
Permalink -

https://repository.derby.ac.uk/item/q328z/deep-labeller-automatic-bounding-box-generation-for-synthetic-violence-detection-datasets

Download files


Publisher's version
s11042-023-15621-5 (3).pdf
License: CC BY 4.0
File access level: Open

  • 13
    total views
  • 3
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Violence Analysis Through Deep Learning: An Approach using Virtual Environments
Nadeem, M. 2023. Violence Analysis Through Deep Learning: An Approach using Virtual Environments. Thesis https://doi.org/10.48773/q3290
Front and Back Views Gait Recognitions Using EfficientNets and EfficientNetV2 Models Based on Gait Energy Image
Tengku Mohd Afendi, Zulcaffle,, Kurugollu, F., Kuryati, K., Joseph, A. and Bong, D. L. 2023. Front and Back Views Gait Recognitions Using EfficientNets and EfficientNetV2 Models Based on Gait Energy Image. International Journal of Computing and Digital Systems. 2, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.12785/ijcds/XXXXXX
Business Email Compromise Phishing Detection Based on Machine Learning: A Systematic Literature Review
Atlam, H. and Olayonu Oluwatimilehin 2022. Business Email Compromise Phishing Detection Based on Machine Learning: A Systematic Literature Review. Electronics. 12 (1), pp. 1-28. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics12010042
Explaining deep neural networks: A survey on the global interpretation methods
Saleem, R., Yuan, B., Kurugollu, F., Anjum, A. and Liu, L. 2022. Explaining deep neural networks: A survey on the global interpretation methods. Neurocomputing. 513, pp. 165-180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucom.2022.09.129
ANFIS for risk estimation in risk-based access control model for smart homes
Atlam, H. and Gary B. Wills 2022. ANFIS for risk estimation in risk-based access control model for smart homes. Multimedia Tools and Applications. pp. 1-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-022-14010-8
Severity Estimation of Plant Leaf Diseases Using Segmentation Method
Entuni, Chyntia Jaby, Afendi Zulcaffle, Tengku Mohd, Kipli, Kuryati and Kurugollu, Fatih 2020. Severity Estimation of Plant Leaf Diseases Using Segmentation Method. Applied Science and Engineering Progress. 14 (1), pp. 108-119. https://doi.org/10.14416/j.asep.2020.11.004
Explaining probabilistic Artificial Intelligence (AI) models by discretizing Deep Neural Networks
Saleem, Rabia, Yuan, Bo, Kurugollu, Fatih and Anjum, Ashiq 2020. Explaining probabilistic Artificial Intelligence (AI) models by discretizing Deep Neural Networks. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ucc48980.2020.00070
DEEPSEL: A novel feature selection for early identification of malware in mobile applications
Muhammad Ajmal Azad, Farhan Riaz, Anum Aftab, Syed Khurram Jah Rizvi, Junaid Arshad, Hany F. Atlam and Atlam, H. 2021. DEEPSEL: A novel feature selection for early identification of malware in mobile applications. Future Generation Computer Systems. 129, pp. 54-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2021.10.029
NOTRINO: a NOvel hybrid TRust management scheme for INternet-Of-vehicles
Ahmad, F., Kurugollu, Fatih, Kerrache, Chaker Abdelaziz, Sezer, Sakir and Liu, Lu 2021. NOTRINO: a NOvel hybrid TRust management scheme for INternet-Of-vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. https://doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2021.3049189
A Novel Security Methodology for Smart Grids: A Case Study of Microcomputer-Based Encryption for PMU Devices
Varan, Metin, Akgul, Akif, Kurugollu, Fatih, Sansli, Ahmet and Smith, K. 2021. A Novel Security Methodology for Smart Grids: A Case Study of Microcomputer-Based Encryption for PMU Devices. Complexity. 2021, pp. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2798534
Persation: an IoT based personal safety prediction model aided solution
Alofe, Olasunkanmi Matthew, Fatema, Kaniz, Azad, Muhammad Ajmal and Kurugollu, Fatih 2020. Persation: an IoT based personal safety prediction model aided solution. International Journal of Computing and Digital Systems.
IoT forensics: A state-of-the-art review, callenges and future directions
Alenezi, Ahmed, Atlam, Hany, Alsagri, Reem, Alassafi, Madini and Wills, Gary 2019. IoT forensics: A state-of-the-art review, callenges and future directions. SCITEPRESS - Science and Technology Publications. https://doi.org/10.5220/0007905401060115
Experts reviews of a cloud forensic readiness framework for organizations
Alenezi, Ahmed, Atlam, Hany F. and Wills, Gary B. 2019. Experts reviews of a cloud forensic readiness framework for organizations. Journal of Cloud Computing. 8 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13677-019-0133-z
Security, cybercrime and digital forensics for IoT
Atlam, Hany F., Alenezi, Ahmed, Alassafi, Madini O., Alshdadi, Abdulrahman A. and Wills, Gary B. 2019. Security, cybercrime and digital forensics for IoT. in: Intelligent Systems Reference Library Springer International Publishing.
A famework for data sharing between healthcare providers using blockchain
Alzahrani, Ahmed G., Alenezi, Ahmed, Atlam, Hany F. and Wills, Gary 2020. A famework for data sharing between healthcare providers using blockchain. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Internet of Things, Big Data and Security. https://doi.org/10.5220/0009413403490358
Intersections between IoT and distributed ledger
Atlam, Hany F. and Wills, Gary B. 2019. Intersections between IoT and distributed ledger. in: Advances in Computers Elsevier.
IoT security, privacy, safety and ethics
Atlam, Hany F. and Wills, Gary B. 2019. IoT security, privacy, safety and ethics. in: Internet of Things Springer International Publishing.
Fuzzy logic with expert judgment to implement an adaptive risk-based access control model for IoT
Atlam, Hany F., Walters, Robert J., Wills, Gary B. and Daniel, Joshua 2019. Fuzzy logic with expert judgment to implement an adaptive risk-based access control model for IoT. Mobile Networks and Applications. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-019-01214-w
MARINE: Man-in-the-middle attack resistant trust model IN connEcted vehicles
Ahmad, F., Kurugollu, Fatih, Adnane, Asma, Hussain, Rasheed and Hussain, Fatima 2020. MARINE: Man-in-the-middle attack resistant trust model IN connEcted vehicles. IEEE Internet of Things. https://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2020.2967568
CRT-BIoV: A cognitive radio technique for blockchain-enabled internet of vehicles
Rathee, Geetanjali, Ahmad, F., Kurugollu, Fatih, Azad, Muhammad, Iqbal, Razi and Imran, Muhammad 2020. CRT-BIoV: A cognitive radio technique for blockchain-enabled internet of vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. https://doi.org/10.1109/TITS.2020.3004718
Vehicular sensor networks: Applications, advances and challenges
Kurugollu, Fatih, Ahmed, Syed Hassan, Hussain, Rasheed, Ahmad, F. and Kerrache, Chaker Abdelaziz 2020. Vehicular sensor networks: Applications, advances and challenges. Sensors. https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133686
A validation of security determinants model for cloud adoption in Saudi organisations’ context
Alassafi, Madini O., Atlam, Hany F., Alshdadi, Abdulrahman A., Alzahrani, Abdullah I., AlGhamdi, Rayed A. and Buhari, Seyed M. 2019. A validation of security determinants model for cloud adoption in Saudi organisations’ context. International Journal of Information Technology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41870-019-00360-4
An efficient security risk estimation technique for Risk-based access control model for IoT
Atlam, Hany F. and Wills, Gary 2019. An efficient security risk estimation technique for Risk-based access control model for IoT. Internet of Things. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iot.2019.100052
Integration and evaluation of QUIC and TCP-BBR in longhaul science data transfers
Lopes, Raul H. C., Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Duncan, Rand 2019. Integration and evaluation of QUIC and TCP-BBR in longhaul science data transfers. EPJ Web of Conferences. 214, p. 08026. https://doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201921408026
Privacy verification of photoDNA based on machine learning
Nadeem, Muhammad Shahroz, Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Zhai, Xiaojun 2019. Privacy verification of photoDNA based on machine learning. in: The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET).
Spatio-temporal rich model-based video steganalysis on cross sections of motion vector planes
Tasdemir, Kasim, Kurugollu, Fatih and Sezer, Sakir 2016. Spatio-temporal rich model-based video steganalysis on cross sections of motion vector planes. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2016.2567073
Cascaded multimodal biometric recognition framework
Albesher, Badr, Kurugollu, Fatih, Bouridane, Ahmed and Baig, Asim 2013. Cascaded multimodal biometric recognition framework. IET Biometrics. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-bmt.2012.0043
Privacy region protection for H.264/AVC with enhanced scrambling effect and a low bitrate overhead
Wang, Yongsheng, O׳Neill, Máire, Kurugollu, Fatih and O׳Sullivan, Elizabeth 2015. Privacy region protection for H.264/AVC with enhanced scrambling effect and a low bitrate overhead. Signal Processing: Image Communication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.image.2015.04.013
Blind image watermark detection algorithm based on discrete shearlet transform using statistical decision theory
Ahmaderaghi, Baharak, Kurugollu, Fatih, Rincon, Jesus Martinez Del and Bouridane, Ahmed 2018. Blind image watermark detection algorithm based on discrete shearlet transform using statistical decision theory. IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCI.2018.2794065
Frontal view gait recognition with fusion of depth features from a time of flight camera
Afendi Tengku Mohd, Kurugollu, Fatih, Crookes, Danny, Bouridane, Ahmed and Farid, Mohsen 2018. Frontal view gait recognition with fusion of depth features from a time of flight camera. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIFS.2018.2870594
Behavioural Digital Forensics Model: Embedding Behavioural Evidence Analysis into the Investigation of Digital Crimes
Al Mutawa, Noora, Bryce, Joanne, Franqueira, Virginia N.L., Marrington, Andrew and Read, Janet C. 2018. Behavioural Digital Forensics Model: Embedding Behavioural Evidence Analysis into the Investigation of Digital Crimes. Digital Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diin.2018.12.003
Analytical tools for blockchain: review, taxonomy and open challenges.
Balaskas, Anastasios and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2018. Analytical tools for blockchain: review, taxonomy and open challenges. IEE Explore. https://doi.org/10.1109/CyberSecPODS.2018.8560672
Blockchain-Based Distributed Marketplace.
Kabi, Oliver R. and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2019. Blockchain-Based Distributed Marketplace. in: Springer Nature.
Towards a trusted unmanned aerial system using blockchain (BUAS) for the protection of critical infrastructure
Barka, Ezedin, Kerrache, Chaker Abdelaziz, Benkraouda, Hadjer, Shuaib, Khaled, Ahmad, F. and Kurugollu, Fatih 2019. Towards a trusted unmanned aerial system using blockchain (BUAS) for the protection of critical infrastructure. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1002/ett.3706
A comparative analysis of trust models for safety applications in IoT-enabled vehicular networks
Ahmad, F., Adnane, Asma, Hussain, Rasheed and Kurugollu, Fatih 2019. A comparative analysis of trust models for safety applications in IoT-enabled vehicular networks. IEEE.
A survey of deep learning solutions for multimedia visual content analysis.
Nadeem, Muhammad Shahroz, Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Zhai, Xiaojun and Kurugollu, Fatih 2019. A survey of deep learning solutions for multimedia visual content analysis. IEEE Access. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.DOI
Realization of blockchain in named data networking-based internet-of-vehicles
Ahmad, F., Kerrache, Chaker Abdelaziz, Kurugollu, Fatih and Hussain, Rasheed 2019. Realization of blockchain in named data networking-based internet-of-vehicles. IT Professional. https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2019.2912142
A tutorial introduction to IoT design and prototyping with examples.
Meruje, Manuel, Sumaila, Musa, Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Freire, Mario M. and Inacio, Pedro R. M. 2018. A tutorial introduction to IoT design and prototyping with examples. in: Wiley-IEEE Press.
Spatio-temporal rich model-based video steganalysis on cross sections of motion vector planes.
Tasdemir, Kasim, Kurugollu, Fatih and Sezer, Sakir 2016. Spatio-temporal rich model-based video steganalysis on cross sections of motion vector planes. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2016.2567073
Cloud forensics and security
Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Lopes, Raul, Jones, Andrew and Storer, Tim 2017. Cloud forensics and security. SpringerOpen.
On Locky ransomware, Al Capone and Brexit
MacRae, John and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2018. On Locky ransomware, Al Capone and Brexit. in: Springer.
Man-In-The-Middle attacks in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: Evaluating the impact of attackers’ strategies.
Ahmad, F., Adnane, Asma, Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Kurugollu, Fatih and Liu, Lu 2018. Man-In-The-Middle attacks in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks: Evaluating the impact of attackers’ strategies. Sensors. 18 (11), p. 4040. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18114040
TEAM: A trust evaluation and management framework in context-enabled vehicular ad-hoc networks.
Ahmad, F., Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Adnane, Asma 2018. TEAM: A trust evaluation and management framework in context-enabled vehicular ad-hoc networks. IEEE Access. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2837887
Investigation of indecent images of children cases: Challenges and suggestions collected from the trenches.
Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Bryce, Joanne, Al Mutawa, Noora and Marrington, Andrew 2017. Investigation of indecent images of children cases: Challenges and suggestions collected from the trenches. Digital Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diin.2017.11.002
Parallel Monte Carlo search for Hough Transform.
Lopes, Raul, Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Reid, Ivan D. and Hobson, Peter 2017. Parallel Monte Carlo search for Hough Transform. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/898/7/072052
Verifiable public key encryption scheme with equality test in 5G networks
Xu, Yan, Wang, Ming, Zhong, Hong, Cui, Jie, Liu, Lu and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2017. Verifiable public key encryption scheme with equality test in 5G networks. IEEE Access. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2716971
Special issue on cyberharassment investigation: Advances and trends
Bryce, Joanne, Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Marrington, Andrew 2016. Special issue on cyberharassment investigation: Advances and trends. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law (JDFSL).
Faith in vehicles: A set of evaluation criteria for trust management in vehicular ad-hoc network
Ahmad, F., Hall, Jordan, Adnane, Asma and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2017. Faith in vehicles: A set of evaluation criteria for trust management in vehicular ad-hoc network. IEEE.
Digital video source identification based on green-channel photo response non-uniformity (G-PRNU)
Al-Athamneh, Mohammad, Kurugollu, Fatih, Crookes, Danny and Farid, Mohsen 2016. Digital video source identification based on green-channel photo response non-uniformity (G-PRNU). https://doi.org/10.5121/csit.2016.61105
Forensically-sound analysis of security risks of using local password managers
Gray, Joshua, Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Yu, Yijun 2016. Forensically-sound analysis of security risks of using local password managers. IEEE Computer Society. https://doi.org/10.1109/REW.2016.034
Forensic investigation of cyberstalking cases using Behavioural Evidence Analysis
Al Mutawa, Noora, Bryce, Joanne, Marrington, Andrew and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2016. Forensic investigation of cyberstalking cases using Behavioural Evidence Analysis. Digital Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diin.2016.01.012
To flip or not to flip: a critical interpretive synthesis of flipped teaching
Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Tunnicliffe, Peter 2015. To flip or not to flip: a critical interpretive synthesis of flipped teaching. in: Springer International Publishing.
Factors influencing digital forensic investigations: Empirical evaluation of 12 years of Dubai police cases
Al Awadhi, Ibtesam, Read, Janet C., Marrington, Andrew and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2015. Factors influencing digital forensic investigations: Empirical evaluation of 12 years of Dubai police cases. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law (JDFSL).
A systematic approach for cyber security in vehicular networks
Ahmad, F., Adnane, Asma and Franqueira, Virginia N. L. 2016. A systematic approach for cyber security in vehicular networks. Journal of Computer and Communications. https://doi.org/10.4236/jcc.2016.416004
Introduction to special issue on risk and trust in embedded critical systems
Rossebø, Judith E. Y., Houmb, Siv H., Georg, Geri, Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Serpanos, Dimitrios 2014. Introduction to special issue on risk and trust in embedded critical systems. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems. https://doi.org/10.1145/2659008
Efficient computation of hashes
Lopes, Raul, Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Hobson, Peter 2014. Efficient computation of hashes. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/513/3/032042
Behavioural evidence analysis applied to digital forensics: An empirical analysis of child pornography cases using P2P networks
Mutawa, Noora Al, Bryce, Joanne, Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Marrington, Andrew 2015. Behavioural evidence analysis applied to digital forensics: An empirical analysis of child pornography cases using P2P networks. IEEE Computer Society. https://doi.org/10.1109/ARES.2015.49
Challenges of data provenance for cloud forensic investigations
Katilu, Victoria M., Franqueira, Virginia N. L. and Angelopoulou, Olga 2015. Challenges of data provenance for cloud forensic investigations. IEEE Computer Society. https://doi.org/10.1109/ARES.2015.54
Automated analysis of security requirements through risk-based argumentation
Yu, Yijun, Franqueira, Virginia N. L., Than Tun, Thein, Wieringa, Roel J. and Nuseibeh, Bashar 2015. Automated analysis of security requirements through risk-based argumentation. Journal of Systems and Software. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2015.04.065