Ray Bull


NameRay Bull
Job titleProfessor in Criminal Investigation
Research instituteCollege of Business, Law and Social Sciences
ORCIDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6065-467X

Research outputs

Humane interrogation strategies are associated with confessions, cooperation, and disclosure: Evidence from a field study of incarcerated individuals in the United States

Bettens, T., Bull, R. and Cleary, H. M .D 2024. Humane interrogation strategies are associated with confessions, cooperation, and disclosure: Evidence from a field study of incarcerated individuals in the United States. Criminal Justice and Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1177/00938548241232068

Investigating Feminicide in Mexico. The Conversation Management Approach proposal

Pérez Campos Mayoral, E., Bull, R., Shepherd, E. and Pérez Campos, E.L. 2023. Investigating Feminicide in Mexico. The Conversation Management Approach proposal. European Polygraph. 17 (1), pp. 1-26. https://doi.org/10.2478/ep-2023-0002

Rapport-Building in Multiple Interviews of Children

Waterhouse, G., Ridley, A., Ray Bull,, Satchell, L. and Wilcock, R. 2023. Rapport-Building in Multiple Interviews of Children. Applied Cognitive Psychology. pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.4116

Investigating the Memory Reports of Retractors Regarding Abuse

Li, C., Otgaar, H., van Daele, T., Muris, P., Houben, S. T. L. and Bull, R. 2023. Investigating the Memory Reports of Retractors Regarding Abuse. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context. 15 (2), pp. 63-71. https://doi.org/10.5093/ejpalc2023a7

The non-stranger rapist-oriented interview for complainants: Eliciting high-quality accounts

Sharita Gajadhar and Ray Bull 2023. The non-stranger rapist-oriented interview for complainants: Eliciting high-quality accounts. The Police Journal: Theory, Practice and Principles. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032258x231184980

How do German Police Officers of Varying Empathy Levels React to Different Styles of Interviewing a Suspected Sex Offender?

Baker-Eck, B. and Bull, R. 2023. How do German Police Officers of Varying Empathy Levels React to Different Styles of Interviewing a Suspected Sex Offender? International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. 74, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2023.100610

Fueling an investigative mindset: the importance of pre-interview planning in police interviews with suspects

Chin, J., Milne, R. and Bull, R. 2022. Fueling an investigative mindset: the importance of pre-interview planning in police interviews with suspects. Psychology, Crime & Law. pp. 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2022.2139829

The influence of interview style on SIOs’ responsiveness to the suspect’s alibi

van Beek, M., Bull, R., Chen, M., Fahsing, I. and Milne, R. 2022. The influence of interview style on SIOs’ responsiveness to the suspect’s alibi . Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-022-09551-5

A free account or not? Its effect upon information yield in strategic interviews with suspects

van Beek, M., Bull, R. and Mijalkovic, S. 2022. A free account or not? Its effect upon information yield in strategic interviews with suspects. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling. https://doi.org/10.1002/jip.1600

Effects of Empathy and Question Types on Suspects’ Provision of Information in Investigative Interviews

Baker-Eck, B. and Bull, R. 2022. Effects of Empathy and Question Types on Suspects’ Provision of Information in Investigative Interviews. International Journal of Police Science and Management. 24 (4), pp. 406 - 416. https://doi.org/10.1177/14613557221106073

Improving the Interviewing of Suspects Using the PEACE Model: A Comprehensive Overview

Bull, R. 2023. Improving the Interviewing of Suspects Using the PEACE Model: A Comprehensive Overview. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice . 65 (1).

Contextual factors predict self-reported confession decision-making: A field study of suspects’ actual police interrogation experiences.

Cleary, Hayley and Bull, Ray 2021. Contextual factors predict self-reported confession decision-making: A field study of suspects’ actual police interrogation experiences. Law and Human Behavior. 45 (4), pp. 310-323. https://doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000459

Gender differences in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning in an offending and a matched non-offending population

Spenser, Karin, Bull, Ray, Betts, Lucy and Winder, Belinda 2021. Gender differences in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning in an offending and a matched non-offending population. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X211010287

Investigative empathy: Five types of cognitive empathy in a field study of investigative interviews with suspects of sexual offences

Baker-Eck, Bianca, Bull, Ray and Walsh, Dave 2021. Investigative empathy: Five types of cognitive empathy in a field study of investigative interviews with suspects of sexual offences. Investigative Interviewing: Research and Practice.

The impact of context on real-life serious crime interviews

Leahy-Harland, Samantha and Bull, Ray 2020. The impact of context on real-life serious crime interviews. Police Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2020.1848565

Underpinning prosociality: Age related performance in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning

Spenser, Karin, Bull, Ray, Betts, Lucy and Winder, Belinda 2020. Underpinning prosociality: Age related performance in theory of mind, empathic understanding, and moral reasoning. Cognitive Development. 56, p. 100928. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2020.100928

Police interview of suspects in China: developments and analyses

Zeng, Fanging, Huang, Ching-Yu and Bull, Ray 2020. Police interview of suspects in China: developments and analyses. International Journal of Police Science and Management. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461355720947548

Improving pofessional observers’ veracity judgements by tactical interviewing

Sandham, Alex, Dando, Coral, Bull, Ray and Ormerod, Tom 2020. Improving pofessional observers’ veracity judgements by tactical interviewing. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-020-09391-1

Applying hierarchy of expert performance (HEP) to investigative interview evaluation: strengths, challenges and future directions

Huang, Ching-Yu, Bull, Ray and Dror, Itiel 2020. Applying hierarchy of expert performance (HEP) to investigative interview evaluation: strengths, challenges and future directions. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2020.1770634

Investigative empathy: a strength scale of empathy based on European police perspectives

Baker, Bianca, Bull, Ray and Walsh, Dave 2020. Investigative empathy: a strength scale of empathy based on European police perspectives. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2020.1751333

Exploring investigative interviewing: A Dubai perspective

Almansoori, Rashid, Milne, Rebecca and Bull, Ray 2020. Exploring investigative interviewing: A Dubai perspective. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2020.100393

Witnesses’ verbal evaluation of certainty and uncertainty during investigative interviews: Relationship with report accuracy

Paulo, Rui, Bull, Ray and Albuqurque, Pedro 2019. Witnesses’ verbal evaluation of certainty and uncertainty during investigative interviews: Relationship with report accuracy. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-019-09333-6

Executive functioning as a predictive measure of offending behaviour.

Spenser, Karin A., Bull, Ray, Betts, Lucy and Winder, Belinda 2019. Executive functioning as a predictive measure of offending behaviour. Journal of Criminal Psychology.. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCP-07-2018-0032

Mapping repeated interviews

Waterhouse, Genevieve F., Ridley, Anne M., Bull, Ray, La Rooy, David and Wilcock, Rachel 2018. Mapping repeated interviews. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-018-9288-7

Jail inmates’ perspectives on police interrogation.

Cleary, Hayley M. D. and Bull, Ray 2018. Jail inmates’ perspectives on police interrogation. Psychology, Crime & Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2018.1503667

Planning ahead? An exploratory study of South Korean Investigators' beliefs about their planning for investigative interviews of suspects.

Kim, Jihwan, Walsh, Dave, Bull, Ray and Bergstrom, H. 2017. Planning ahead? An exploratory study of South Korean Investigators' beliefs about their planning for investigative interviews of suspects. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-017-9243-z

An exploration of perceptions of real-life suspects’ from the Asian Muslim community relating to the police interviewing practices in England

Minhas, Rashid, Walsh, Dave and Bull, Ray 2017. An exploration of perceptions of real-life suspects’ from the Asian Muslim community relating to the police interviewing practices in England. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism. https://doi.org/10.1080/18335330.2017.1355103

Improving the enhanced cognitive interview with a new interview strategy: category clustering recall.

Paulo, Rui M., Albuquerque, Pedro B. and Bull, Ray 2017. Improving the enhanced cognitive interview with a new interview strategy: category clustering recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3253

Enhancing the cognitive interview with an alternative procedure to witness-compatible questioning: category clustering recall

Paulo, Rui M., Albuquerque, Pedro B., Vitorino, Fabiana and Bull, Ray 2017. Enhancing the cognitive interview with an alternative procedure to witness-compatible questioning: category clustering recall. Psychology, Crime & Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2017.1351966

Police perceptions of rape victims and the impact on case decision making: A systematic review

Sleath, Emma and Bull, Ray 2017. Police perceptions of rape victims and the impact on case decision making: A systematic review. Aggression and violent behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2017.02.003

Developing a scale to measure the presence of possible prejudicial stereotyping in police interviews with suspects: The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS)

Minhas, Rashid Ali, Walsh, Dave and Bull, Ray 2016. Developing a scale to measure the presence of possible prejudicial stereotyping in police interviews with suspects: The Minhas Investigative Interviewing Prejudicial Stereotyping Scale (MIIPSS). Police Practice and Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/15614263.2016.1249870

Police strategies and suspect responses in real-life serious crime interviews

Leahy-Harland, Samantha and Bull, Ray 2016. Police strategies and suspect responses in real-life serious crime interviews. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-016-9207-8

Dynamics of repeated interviews with children

Waterhouse, Genevieve F., Ridley, Anne M., Bull, Ray, La Rooy, David and Wilcock, Rachel 2016. Dynamics of repeated interviews with children. Applied Cognitive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3246

Police interrogation practice in Slovenia

Areh, Igor, Walsh, Dave and Bull, Ray 2015. Police interrogation practice in Slovenia. Psychology, Crime & Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2015.1114113

The enhanced cognitive interview: expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy

Paulo, Rui M., Albuquerque, Pedro B. and Bull, Ray 2015. The enhanced cognitive interview: expressions of uncertainty, motivation and its relation with report accuracy. Psychology, Crime & Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2015.1109089

A lesson on interrogations from detainees: Predicting self-reported confessions and cooperation

Snook, Brent, Brooks, Dianna and Bull, Ray 2015. A lesson on interrogations from detainees: Predicting self-reported confessions and cooperation. Criminal Justice and Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854815604179

One way or another? Criminal investigators' beliefs regarding the disclosure of evidence in interviews with suspects in England and Wales

Walsh, Dave, Milne, Becky and Bull, Ray 2015. One way or another? Criminal investigators' beliefs regarding the disclosure of evidence in interviews with suspects in England and Wales. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-015-9174-5

The enhanced cognitive interview: Testing appropriateness perception, memory capacity and error estimate relation with report quality

Paulo, Rui M., Albuquerque, Pedro B., Saraiva, Magda and Bull, Ray 2015. The enhanced cognitive interview: Testing appropriateness perception, memory capacity and error estimate relation with report quality. Applied Cognitive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3132

Interviewing suspects: examining the association between skills, questioning, evidence disclosure, and interview outcomes

Walsh, Dave and Bull, Ray 2015. Interviewing suspects: examining the association between skills, questioning, evidence disclosure, and interview outcomes. Psychology, Crime & Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2015.1028544

Detecting truth in suspect interviews: the effect of use of evidence (early and gradual) and time delay on Criteria-Based Content Analysis, Reality Monitoring and inconsistency within suspect statements

McDougall, Alice Jennifer and Bull, Ray 2015. Detecting truth in suspect interviews: the effect of use of evidence (early and gradual) and time delay on Criteria-Based Content Analysis, Reality Monitoring and inconsistency within suspect statements. Psychology, Crime & Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2014.994631

The effect of co-offender planning on verbal deception

Chan, Stephanie and Bull, Ray 2013. The effect of co-offender planning on verbal deception. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law. https://doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2013.835703

Exploring the disclosure of forensic evidence in police interviews with suspects

Smith, Lisa L. and Bull, Ray 2013. Exploring the disclosure of forensic evidence in police interviews with suspects. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11896-013-9131-0

Helping to sort the liars from the truth-tellers: The gradual revelation of information during investigative interviews

Dando, Coral J., Bull, Ray, Ormerod, Thomas C. and Sandham, Alexandra L. 2013. Helping to sort the liars from the truth-tellers: The gradual revelation of information during investigative interviews. Legal and Criminological Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/lcrp.12016

Behavior displayed by female victims during rapes committed by lone and multiple perpetrators.

Woodhams, Jessica, Hollin, Clive R., Bull, Ray and Cooke, Claire 2012. Behavior displayed by female victims during rapes committed by lone and multiple perpetrators. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026134

Linking different types of crime using geographical and temporal proximity

Tonkin, Matthew, Woodhams, Jessica, Bull, Ray, Bond, John W. and Palmer, Emma J. 2011. Linking different types of crime using geographical and temporal proximity. Criminal Justice and Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854811418599
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