On the productive efficiency of Australian businesses: firm size and age class effects

Journal article


Cowling, M and Tanewski, G. 2018. On the productive efficiency of Australian businesses: firm size and age class effects. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-018-0070-0
AuthorsCowling, M and Tanewski, G.
Abstract

After 26 years of growth, the Australian economy is beginning to show signs of stress and declining productivity. In this paper, we consider aspects of productive efficiency using an Australian business population data set. Using a production function approach, several key findings are uncovered. Firstly, decreasing returns to scale are identified as a significant feature of the Australian business sector. This implies that not all firm growth will lead to productivity gains. Secondly, there are significant differences in the way value added is created between small and large firms. In the largest 25% of firms, the capital contribution to value added is four times that of the smallest 25% of firms. Thirdly, efficiency follows an inverted ‘U’ shaped in firm age with the youngest (0–2 years) and oldest (> 9 years) firms being less productive than the middle 50% of firms. Fourthly, there are also huge industry sector variations in productivity. In particular, financial services appears to be the most productively efficient sector in the Australian economy and mining the least efficient.

Year2018
JournalSmall Business Economics
PublisherElsevier
ISSN0921898X
15730913
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-018-0070-0
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/624078
hdl:10545/624078
Publication dates22 Jun 2018
Publication process dates
Deposited06 Aug 2019, 15:37
ContributorsUniversity of Brighton
Permalink -

https://repository.derby.ac.uk/item/923z9/on-the-productive-efficiency-of-australian-businesses-firm-size-and-age-class-effects

  • 8
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Predicting future default on the Covid-19 bounce back loan scheme: The 46.5 billion question
Cowling, Marc, Wilson, N, Nightingale, P and Kacer, M 2022. Predicting future default on the Covid-19 bounce back loan scheme: The 46.5 billion question. International Small Business Journal.
Has previous loan rejection scarred firms from applying for loans during Covid-19?
Cowling, Marc, Calabrese, Raffaella and Liu, Weixi 2021. Has previous loan rejection scarred firms from applying for loans during Covid-19? Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-021-00586-2
Understanding the Dynamics of UK Covid-19 SME Financing
Calabrese, Raffaella, Cowling, Marc and Liu, Weixi 2021. Understanding the Dynamics of UK Covid-19 SME Financing. British Journal of Management. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12576
Access to Finance for Cleantech Innovation and Investment: Evidence from U.K. Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises
Cowling, Marc and Weixi, Liu 2021. Access to Finance for Cleantech Innovation and Investment: Evidence from U.K. Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2021.3066685
The geographical impact of the Covid-19 crisis on precautionary savings, firm survival and jobs: Evidence from the United Kingdom’s 100 largest towns and cities
Brown, Ross and Cowling, Marc 2021. The geographical impact of the Covid-19 crisis on precautionary savings, firm survival and jobs: Evidence from the United Kingdom’s 100 largest towns and cities. International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242621989326
The covid-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom and subjective well-being: have the self-employed suffered more due to hours and income reductions?
Yue, Wei and Cowling, Marc 2021. The covid-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom and subjective well-being: have the self-employed suffered more due to hours and income reductions? International Small Business Journal: Researching Entrepreneurship. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242620986763
The geography of business angel investments in the UK: Does local bias (still) matter?
Cowling, Marc, Brown, Ross and Lee, Neil 2021. The geography of business angel investments in the UK: Does local bias (still) matter? Event and Planning A: Economy and Space. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X20984484
Regional and spatial issues in the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises and new ventures
Cowling, Marc, Ughetto, Elisa and Lee, Neil 2019. Regional and spatial issues in the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises and new ventures. Regional Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2019.1601174
Cost of capital and public loan guarantees to small firms
Ughetto, Elisa, Scellato, Giuseppe and Cowling, Marc 2017. Cost of capital and public loan guarantees to small firms. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-017-9845-y
Investment motivations and UK business angels' appetite for risk taking: The moderating role of experience
Croce, Annalisa, Ughetto, Elisa and Cowling, Marc 2019. Investment motivations and UK business angels' appetite for risk taking: The moderating role of experience. British Journal of Management. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12380
Gender and bank lending after the global financial crisis: are women entrepreneurs safer bets?
Cowling, Marc, Marlow, Susan and Liu, Weixi 2019. Gender and bank lending after the global financial crisis: are women entrepreneurs safer bets? Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-019-00168-3
Did you save some cash for a rainy COVID-19 day? The crisis and SMEs
Cowling, Marc, Brown, Ross and Rocha, Augusto 2020. Did you save some cash for a rainy COVID-19 day? The crisis and SMEs. International Small Business Journal: Research Entrepreneurship. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242620945102
The snowballing penalty effect: Multiple disadvantage and pay
Woodhams, Carol, Lutpon, Ben and Cowling, Marc 2013. The snowballing penalty effect: Multiple disadvantage and pay. British Journal of Management. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12032
LDBG loan and grant funding recipients
Cowling, Marc and Nadeem, Simon Peter 2019. LDBG loan and grant funding recipients. University of Derby.
Entrepreneurial firms: With whom do they compete, and where?
Cowling, Marc and Nadeem, Simon Peter 2020. Entrepreneurial firms: With whom do they compete, and where? Review of Industrial Organization. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11151-020-09782-y
Can local finance add value to local small business? Evidence from a UK local loan and grant fund
Cowling, Marc, Nadeem, Simon Peter, Foster, Carley and Baranova, Polina 2020. Can local finance add value to local small business? Evidence from a UK local loan and grant fund. International Review of Entrepreneurship.
Depletion and Subjective Well-Being: Lessons from the UK Coronavirus Lockdown
Nunn, A. and Cowling, M. 2020. Depletion and Subjective Well-Being: Lessons from the UK Coronavirus Lockdown. Global Policy.
Two decades of European self-employment: Is the answer to who becomes self-employed different over time and countries?
Millán, José María, Yue, Wei and Cowling, M 2019. Two decades of European self-employment: Is the answer to who becomes self-employed different over time and countries? Journal of Business Venturing Insights. 12, p. e00138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2019.e00138
Market consolidation, market growth, or new market development? Owner, firm, and competitive determinants
Weixi, Liu, Wei, Yue, Hang, Do and Cowling, M 2019. Market consolidation, market growth, or new market development? Owner, firm, and competitive determinants. International Review of Entrepreneurship.
The World is your Oyster: The Effects of Knowledge, Human Capital, Technology and Entry Timing on International Growth
Cowling, M, Liu, W and Zhang, N. 2016. The World is your Oyster: The Effects of Knowledge, Human Capital, Technology and Entry Timing on International Growth. International Review of Entrepreneurship.
Internal financial management in smaller, entrepreneurial businesses
Cowling, M and Matthews, C. 2018. Internal financial management in smaller, entrepreneurial businesses. in: Sage.
The innovation debt penalty: Cost of debt, loan default, and the effects of a public loan guarantee on high-tech firms
Cowling, M, Ughetto, E and Lee, N. 2017. The innovation debt penalty: Cost of debt, loan default, and the effects of a public loan guarantee on high-tech firms. Technological Forecasting and Social Change.
You can lead a firm to R&D but can you make it innovate? UK evidence from SMEs
Cowling, M 2016. You can lead a firm to R&D but can you make it innovate? UK evidence from SMEs. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-016-9704-2
Non-founder human capital and the long-run growth and survival of high-tech ventures
Siepel, J, Cowling, M and Coad, A. 2016. Non-founder human capital and the long-run growth and survival of high-tech ventures. Technovation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2016.09.001
Did firm age, experience, and access to finance count? SME performance after the global financial crisis
Cowling, M, Liu, W and Zhang, N. 2017. Did firm age, experience, and access to finance count? SME performance after the global financial crisis. Journal of Evolutionary Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00191-017-0502-z
Growth processes of high-growth firms as a four-dimensional chicken and egg
Coad, A, Cowling, M and Siepel, J. 2016. Growth processes of high-growth firms as a four-dimensional chicken and egg. Industrial and Corporate Change. https://doi.org/10.1093/icc/dtw040
Do rural firms perceive different problems? Geography, sorting, and barriers to growth in UK SMEs
Lyee, N and Cowling, M 2015. Do rural firms perceive different problems? Geography, sorting, and barriers to growth in UK SMEs. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space. https://doi.org/10.1068/c12234b
Multiple disadvantage and wage growth: The effect of merit pay on pay gaps
Woodhams, C, Lupton, B, Perkins, G and Cowling, M 2015. Multiple disadvantage and wage growth: The effect of merit pay on pay gaps. Human Resource Management. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21692
Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis
Lee, N, Sameen, H and Cowling, M 2014. Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis. Research Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2014.09.008
UK credit and discouragement during the GFC
Cowling, M, Liu, W, Minniti, M and Zhang, N. 2016. UK credit and discouragement during the GFC. Small Business Economics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-016-9745-6
What really happens to small and medium-sized enterprises in a global economic recession? UK evidence on sales and job dynamics
Cowling, M, Liu, W, Ledger, A and Zhang, N. 2014. What really happens to small and medium-sized enterprises in a global economic recession? UK evidence on sales and job dynamics. International Small Business Journal: Researching Enterperneurship. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242613512513
The use and value of freelancers: The perspective of managers.
Burke, A and Cowling, M 1910. The use and value of freelancers: The perspective of managers. International Review of Entrepreneurship.
The role of loan commitment terms in credit allocation on the UK small firms loan guarantee scheme
Cowling, M, Matthews, C and Liu, W. 2017. The role of loan commitment terms in credit allocation on the UK small firms loan guarantee scheme. International Review of Entrepreneurship.
How entrepreneurship, culture and universities influence the geographical distribution of UK talent and city growth
Cowling, M and Lee, N. 2017. How entrepreneurship, culture and universities influence the geographical distribution of UK talent and city growth. Journal of Management Development. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-03-2016-0043
Access to bank finance for UK SMEs in the wake of the recent financial crisis
Cowling, M, Liu, W and Zhang, N. 2016. Access to bank finance for UK SMEs in the wake of the recent financial crisis. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-06-2015-0126