Leveraging Beneficial Off-Target Effects of Live-Attenuated Rotavirus Vaccines

Journal article


Benedicto-Matambo, P, Bines, J.E, Malamba-Banda, Chikondi, Shawa, I., Barnes, K, Kamng'ona, A.W, Hungerford, D, Jambo, K.C, Iturriza-Gomara, M, Cunliffe, N.A, Flanagan, K.L and Jere, K.C 2022. Leveraging Beneficial Off-Target Effects of Live-Attenuated Rotavirus Vaccines. Vaccines. 10 (3), p. 418. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030418
AuthorsBenedicto-Matambo, P, Bines, J.E, Malamba-Banda, Chikondi, Shawa, I., Barnes, K, Kamng'ona, A.W, Hungerford, D, Jambo, K.C, Iturriza-Gomara, M, Cunliffe, N.A, Flanagan, K.L and Jere, K.C
Abstract

Following the introduction of live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines in many countries, a notable reduction in deaths and hospitalisations associated with diarrhoea in children <5 years of age has been reported. There is growing evidence to suggest that live-attenuated vaccines also provide protection against other infections beyond the vaccine-targeted pathogens. These so called off-target effects of vaccination have been associated with the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), measles, oral polio and recently salmonella vaccines, and are thought to be mediated by modified innate and possibly adaptive immunity. Indeed, rotavirus vaccines have been reported to provide greater than expected reductions in acute gastroenteritis caused by other enteropathogens, that have mostly been attributed to herd protection and prior underestimation of rotavirus disease. Whether rotavirus vaccines also alter the immune system to reduce non targeted gastrointestinal infections has not been studied directly. Here we review the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying off-target effects of vaccines and propose a mechanism by which the live-attenuated neonatal rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, could promote protection beyond the targeted pathogen. Finally, we consider how vaccine developers may leverage these properties to improve health outcomes in children, particularly those in low-income countries where disease burden and mortality is disproportionately high relative to developed countries.

KeywordsRV3-BB; epigenetic modulation; live attenuated; neonatal; off-target effects; rotavirus
Year2022
JournalVaccines
Journal citation10 (3), p. 418
Publisher MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
ISSN2076-393X
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10030418
Web address (URL)https://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/10/3/418
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35335050/
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online10 Mar 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted04 Mar 2022
Deposited06 Jun 2023
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