Social network analysis: the use of graph distances to compare artificial and criminal networks

Journal article


Ficara, Annamaria, Curreri, Francesco, Cavallaro, Lucia, De Meo, Pasquale, Fiumara, Giacomo, Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Liotta, Antonio 2021. Social network analysis: the use of graph distances to compare artificial and criminal networks. Journal of Smart Environments and Green Computing. https://doi.org/10.20517/jsegc.2021.08
AuthorsFicara, Annamaria, Curreri, Francesco, Cavallaro, Lucia, De Meo, Pasquale, Fiumara, Giacomo, Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Liotta, Antonio
Abstract

Aim: Italian criminal groups become more and more dangerous spreading their activities into new sectors. A criminal group is made up of networks of hundreds of family gangs which extended their influence across the world, raking in billions from drug trafficking, extortion and money laundering. We focus in particular on the analysis of the social structure of two Sicilian crime families and we used a Social Network Analysis approach to study the social phenomena. Starting from a real criminal network extracted from meetings emerging from the police physical surveillance during 2000s, we here aim to create artificial models that present similar properties.

Methods: We use specific tools of social network analysis and graph theory such as network models (i.e., random, small-world and scale-free) and graph distances to quantify the similarity between an artificial network and a real one. To the best of our knowledge, spectral graph distances and the DeltaCon similarity have never been applied to criminal networks.

Results: Our experiments identify the Barabási-Albert model as the one which better represents a criminal network. For this reason, we could expect that new members of a criminal organization will be more likely to establish connections with high degree nodes rather than low degree nodes.

Conclusion: Artificial but realistic models can represent a useful tool for Law Enforcement Agencies to simulate and study the structure, evolution and faults of criminal networks.

KeywordsCriminal networks; social network analysis; graph theory; spectral distance; network model
Year2021
JournalJournal of Smart Environments and Green Computing
PublisherOAE Publishing Inc.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.20517/jsegc.2021.08
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/626098
hdl:10545/626098
Publication dates28 Sep 2021
Publication process dates
Deposited10 Nov 2021, 16:39
Accepted07 Sep 2021
ContributorsUniversity of Palermo, Palermo, Italy., University of Messina, Messina, Italy., University of Derby and Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy.
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Accuracy of no-reference quality metrics in network-impaired video streams
Vega, Maria Torres, Sguazzo, Vittorio, Mocanu, Decebal Constantin and Liotta, Antonio 2015. Accuracy of no-reference quality metrics in network-impaired video streams. ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2837126.2837150
Distributed TSCH scheduling: A comparative analysis
van der Lee, Tim, Exarchakos, Georgios and Liotta, Antonio 2017. Distributed TSCH scheduling: A comparative analysis. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/SMC.2017.8123176
Self-Learning Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks
Chincoli, Michele and Liotta, Antonio 2018. Self-Learning Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020375
Integration, Interconnection, and Interoperability of IoT Systems
Gravina, Raffaele, Palau, Carlos E, Manso, Marco, Liotta, Antonio and Fortino, Giancarlo 2018. Integration, Interconnection, and Interoperability of IoT Systems. Springer International Publishing.
When does lower bitrate give higher quality in modern video services?
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Liotta, Antonio, Ricci, Arianna, Vega, Maria Torres and Exarchakos, Georgios 2014. When does lower bitrate give higher quality in modern video services? IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/NOMS.2014.6838400
A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines (extented abstract)
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Mocanu, Elena, Nguyen, Phuong H., Gibescu, Madeleine and Liotta, Antonio 2016. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines (extented abstract).
Reduced reference image quality assessment via boltzmann machines
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Exarchakos, Georgios, Ammar, Haitham Bou and Liotta, Antonio 2015. Reduced reference image quality assessment via boltzmann machines. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/INM.2015.7140481
Big IoT data mining for real-time energy disaggregation in buildings
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Mocanu, Elena, Nguyen, Phuong H., Gibescu, Madeleine and Liotta, Antonio 2016. Big IoT data mining for real-time energy disaggregation in buildings. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/SMC.2016.7844820
Estimating 3d trajectories from 2d projections via disjunctive factored four-way conditional restricted boltzmann machines
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Ammar, Haitham Bou, Puig, Luis, Eaton, Eric and Liotta, Antonio 2017. Estimating 3d trajectories from 2d projections via disjunctive factored four-way conditional restricted boltzmann machines. Pattern Recognition. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2017.04.017
A Report on the First IFIP/IEEE Workshop on Quality of Experience Centric Management (QCMan 2013)
Latré, Steven, Liotta, Antonio and De Turck, Filip 2014. A Report on the First IFIP/IEEE Workshop on Quality of Experience Centric Management (QCMan 2013). Journal of Network and Systems Management. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10922-014-9301-0
Real time 10Gb-ethernet transmission over 2D indoor passive beam steered optical wireless system based on high port arrayed waveguide gratings
Khalid, Amir Masood, Vega, Maria Torres, Mekonen, Ketamaw A., Cao, Zizheng, Liotta, Antonio and Koonen, A.M. J. 2016. Real time 10Gb-ethernet transmission over 2D indoor passive beam steered optical wireless system based on high port arrayed waveguide gratings. VDE.
A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Mocanu, Elena, Nguyen, Phuong H., Gibescu, Madeleine and Liotta, Antonio 2016. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines. Machine Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10994-016-5570-z
Combining smart lighting and radio fingerprinting for improved indoor localization
Kanaris, Loizos, Kokkinis, Akis, Liotta, Antonio and Stavrou, Stavros 2017. Combining smart lighting and radio fingerprinting for improved indoor localization. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICNSC.2017.8000134
Monitoring Network Use of Resources
Menkovski, Vlado, Den Hartog, Frank and Liotta, Antonio 2016. Monitoring Network Use of Resources.
Interference mitigation through adaptive power control in wireless sensor networks
Chincoli, Michele, Bacchiani, Claudio, Syed, Aly Aamer, Exarchakos, Geogios and Liotta, Antonio 2015. Interference mitigation through adaptive power control in wireless sensor networks. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/SMC.2015.232
Assessment of proactive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks
Kotian, Roshan, Exarchakos, Georgios and Liotta, Antonio 2014. Assessment of proactive transmission power control for wireless sensor networks. ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering). https://doi.org/10.4108/icst.bodynets.2014.258209
QoE modelling for VP9 and H. 265 videos on mobile devices
Song, Wei, Xiao, Yao, Tjondronegoro, Dian and Liotta, Antonio 2015. QoE modelling for VP9 and H. 265 videos on mobile devices. ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2733373.2806256
End-to-end performance evaluation in high-speed wireless networks
Vega, Maria Torres, Zou, Shihuan, Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Tangdiongga, Eduward, Koonen, A. M. J. and Liotta, Antonio 2014. End-to-end performance evaluation in high-speed wireless networks. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/CNSM.2014.7014190
Spatial anomaly detection in sensor networks using neighborhood information
Bosman, Hedde HWJ, Iacca, Giovanni, Tejada, Arturo, Wörtche, Heinrich J and Liotta, Antonio 2016. Spatial anomaly detection in sensor networks using neighborhood information. Information Fusion. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inffus.2016.04.007
Learning networks for complex interconnections
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Exarchakos, Georgios and Liotta, Antonio 2016. Learning networks for complex interconnections.
Relevance prevails: missing data treatment in intelligent lighting
Gopalakrishna, Aravind Kota, Ozcelebi, Tanir, Liotta, Antonio and Lukkien, Johan J. 2014. Relevance prevails: missing data treatment in intelligent lighting. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02309-0_40
Sample size determination algorithm for fingerprint-based indoor localization systems
Kanaris, Loizos, Kokkinis, Akis, Fortino, Giancarlo, Liotta, Antonio and Stavrou, Stavros 2016. Sample size determination algorithm for fingerprint-based indoor localization systems. Computer Networks. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2015.12.015
Two-dimensional optical beam steering module
Koonen, Antonius Marcellus Jozef, Baltus, Peter GM and Liotta, Antonio 2016. Two-dimensional optical beam steering module.
Ensembles of incremental learners to detect anomalies in ad hoc sensor networks
Bosman, Hedde HWJ, Iacca, Giovanni, Tejada, Arturo, Wörtche, Heinrich J and Liotta, Antonio 2015. Ensembles of incremental learners to detect anomalies in ad hoc sensor networks. ad hoc networks. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2015.07.013
Quality of fingerprint radiomaps for positioning systems
Kanaris, Loizos, Kokkinis, Akis, Liotta, Antonio and Stavrou, Stavros 2017. Quality of fingerprint radiomaps for positioning systems. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICT.2017.7998235
Fusing Bluetooth beacon data with Wi-Fi radiomaps for improved indoor localization
Kanaris, Loizos, Kokkinis, Akis, Liotta, Antonio and Stavrou, Stavros 2017. Fusing Bluetooth beacon data with Wi-Fi radiomaps for improved indoor localization. Sensors. https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040812
plexi: Adaptive re-scheduling web-service of time synchronized low-power wireless networks
Exarchakos, Georgios, Oztelcan, Ilker, Sarakiotis, Dimitris and Liotta, Antonio 2017. plexi: Adaptive re-scheduling web-service of time synchronized low-power wireless networks. Journal of Network and Computer Applications. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnca.2016.06.013
The double link between network science and artificial intelligence: a key to scalable learning solutions?
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Exarchakos, Georgios and Liotta, Antonio 2016. The double link between network science and artificial intelligence: a key to scalable learning solutions?
Towards ABAC Policy Mining from Logs with Deep Learning
Mocanu, Decebal Constantin, Turkmen, Fatih and Liotta, Antonio 2015. Towards ABAC Policy Mining from Logs with Deep Learning.
Improving RSS fingerprint-based localization using directional antennas
Kanaris, Loizos, Kokkinis, Akis, Raspopoulos, Marios, Liotta, Antonio and Stavrou, Stavros 2014. Improving RSS fingerprint-based localization using directional antennas. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/EuCAP.2014.6902090
Unifying local-global type properties in vector optimization.
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Popovici, Nicolae 2018. Unifying local-global type properties in vector optimization. Journal of Global Optimization. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10898-018-0656-8
Local maximizers of generalized convex vector-valued functions.
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Popovici, Nicolae 2017. Local maximizers of generalized convex vector-valued functions. Journal of Nonlinear and Convex Analysis.
Case studies: Using heuristics.
Lowndes, Val, Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Berry, Stuart 2017. Case studies: Using heuristics. in: Springer.
Further use of heuristic methods.
Lowndes, Val, Berry, Stuart, Parkes, Chris, Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Popovici, Nicolae 2017. Further use of heuristic methods. in: Springer.
Characterizations of generalized exponential trichotomies for linear discrete-time systems.
Popa, Ioan-Lucian, Ceauşu, Traian and Bagdasar, Ovidiu 2016. Characterizations of generalized exponential trichotomies for linear discrete-time systems. Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.endm.2016.11.010
On the geometry of certain periodic non-homogeneous Horadam sequences.
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Popa, Ioan-Lucian 2016. On the geometry of certain periodic non-homogeneous Horadam sequences. Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.endm.2016.11.002
New results and conjectures on 2-partitions of multisets.
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Andrica, Dorin 2017. New results and conjectures on 2-partitions of multisets. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Modeling, Simulation, and Applied Optimization (ICMSAO). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMSAO.2017.7934928
On the masked periodicity of Horadam sequences: A generator-based approach.
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Larcombe, Peter J. 2017. On the masked periodicity of Horadam sequences: A generator-based approach. Fibonacci Quarterly.
Qualitative case study methodology: Automatic design and correction of ceramic colors.
Bagdasar, Ovidiu, Birlutiu, Adriana, Chen, Minsi and Popa, Ioan-Lucian 2017. Qualitative case study methodology: Automatic design and correction of ceramic colors. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSTCC.2017.8107118
Deepeddy: A simple deep architecture for mesoscale oceanic eddy detection in sar images
Huang, Dongmei, Du, Yanling, He, Q., Song, Wei and Liotta, Antonio 2017. Deepeddy: A simple deep architecture for mesoscale oceanic eddy detection in sar images. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICNSC.2017.8000171
On the number of complex horadam sequences with a fixed period
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Larcombe, Peter J. 2013. On the number of complex horadam sequences with a fixed period. Fibonacci Quarterly.
On the characterization of periodic complex Horadam sequences
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Larcombe, Peter J. 2013. On the characterization of periodic complex Horadam sequences. Fibonacci Quarterly.
On a result of Bunder involving Horadam sequences: A proof and generalization
Larcombe, Peter J. and Bagdasar, Ovidiu 2013. On a result of Bunder involving Horadam sequences: A proof and generalization. Fibonacci Quarterly.
On a result of Bunder involving horadam sequences: A new proof
Larcombe, Peter J., Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Fennessey, Eric J. 2014. On a result of Bunder involving horadam sequences: A new proof. Fibonacci Quarterly.
Influence discovery in semantic networks: An initial approach
Trovati, Marcello and Bagdasar, Ovidiu 2014. Influence discovery in semantic networks: An initial approach. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/UKSim.2014.48
Complementary iInequalities involving the Stolarsky Mean
Bagdasar, Ovidiu 2010. Complementary iInequalities involving the Stolarsky Mean. Journal of Inequalities and Applications. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/492570
Concise computer mathematics: tutorials on theory and problems
Bagdasar, Ovidiu 2013. Concise computer mathematics: tutorials on theory and problems. Springer.
On the characterization of periodic generalized Horadam sequences
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Larcombe, Peter J. 2014. On the characterization of periodic generalized Horadam sequences. Journal of Difference Equations and Applications. https://doi.org/10.1080/10236198.2014.891022
Local maximum points of explicitly quasiconvex functions
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Popovici, Nicolae 2014. Local maximum points of explicitly quasiconvex functions. Optimization Letters. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11590-014-0781-3
A Horadam-based pseudo-random number generator
Bagdasar, Ovidiu and Chen, Minsi 2014. A Horadam-based pseudo-random number generator. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/UKSim.2014.55
On the structure of periodic complex Horadam orbits
Bagdasar, Ovidiu, Larcombe, Peter J. and Anjum, Ashiq 2016. On the structure of periodic complex Horadam orbits. Carpathian Journal of Mathematics..
On some functions involving the lcm and gcd of integer tuples
Bagdasar, Ovidiu 2014. On some functions involving the lcm and gcd of integer tuples. Scientific Publications of the State University of Novi Pazar Series A: Applied Mathematics, Informatics and mechanics. https://doi.org/10.5937/SPSUNP1402091B