An eco-friendly solution for liquid phase exfoliation of graphite

Journal article


Morton, J. A., Kaur, A., Khavari, M., Tyurnina, A. V., Priyadarshi, A., Eskin, D. G., Mi, J., Porfyrakis, K., Prentice, P. and Tzanakis, I. 2023. An eco-friendly solution for liquid phase exfoliation of graphite. Carbon. 204, pp. 434-446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2022.12.070
AuthorsMorton, J. A., Kaur, A., Khavari, M., Tyurnina, A. V., Priyadarshi, A., Eskin, D. G., Mi, J., Porfyrakis, K., Prentice, P. and Tzanakis, I.
Abstract

Ultrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation (ULPE) is a promising method for the large scale production of 2D materials. Currently, toxic solvents such as N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) are commonly used for the production of graphene. In this paper four solvents; three green solvents (water, ethanol and water/ethanol) plus NMP for comparison, were sonicated and examined in terms of their bubble dynamics and acoustic emissions. Advanced fundamental analysis was conducted using high-speed imaging synchronised with acoustic pressure measurements complemented by shadowgraphic photography of the emitted shockwaves, in order to determine a suitable eco-friendly solvent medium from a cavitation bubbles dynamics perspective. Thereafter, ULPE of graphite in the optimum solvent took place for 2 h under controlled ultrasonication parameters. The produced graphene samples were characterised by employing a series of techniques consisting of Ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) and Raman spectroscopy as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A mixture of deionised water and ethanol was shown to produce a yield twice that of pure water, comprising of high quality few layer graphene (3–5 Ls) with an average area of ∼1.15 (μm)2 and stability of ∼78% for the duration of six months. This combination is a promising eco-friendly substitute for future commercial manufacturing of graphene.

KeywordsUltrasonic assisted liquid phase exfoliation (ULPE); 2D materials; Advanced fundamental analysis
Year2023
JournalCarbon
Journal citation204, pp. 434-446
PublisherElsevier
ISSN0008-6223
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2022.12.070
Web address (URL)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008622322011125?dgcid=coauthor
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008622322011125
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Open
Output statusPublished
Publication dates
Online04 Jan 2023
Publication process dates
Accepted26 Dec 2022
Deposited10 Feb 2023
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