Cardiorespiratory and skeletal muscle damage due to COVID-19: making the urgent case for rehabilitation

Journal article


Silva, Rebeca Nunes, Goulart, Cássia da Luz, Oliveira, Murilo Rezende, Tacao, Guilherme Yassuyuki, Back, Guilherme Dionir, Severin, Richard, Faghy, Mark, Arena, Ross and Borghi-Silva, Audrey 2021. Cardiorespiratory and skeletal muscle damage due to COVID-19: making the urgent case for rehabilitation. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 15 (9), pp. 1107-1120. https://doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2021.1893169
AuthorsSilva, Rebeca Nunes, Goulart, Cássia da Luz, Oliveira, Murilo Rezende, Tacao, Guilherme Yassuyuki, Back, Guilherme Dionir, Severin, Richard, Faghy, Mark, Arena, Ross and Borghi-Silva, Audrey
Abstract

It has become increasingly evident that COVID-19 contributes to multiorgan pathophysiology. The systemic inflammatory response increases both pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, leading to immune dysregulation and increasing the likelihood of incurring cardiac and pulmonary injuries.

Longer periods of hospitalization (~20 days) increase susceptibility to ICU-acquired muscle weakness and deconditioning, which decreases muscle function and functional capacity. These conditions affect the quality of life in the post-COVID-19 period and require multi-disciplinary approaches to rehabilitate the cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal systems of these patients. In this context, this narrative review, which included articles published in the Embase, PEDro and PubMed databases up to December 2020, is focused on discussing the essential role of exercise and rehabilitation health professionals in the COVID-19 recovery process, from hospitalization to hospital discharge, addressing strategies for professionals to mitigate the cardiac and pulmonary impairments associated with hospitalization to home or ambulatory rehabilitation, purposing ways to conduct rehabilitation programs to restore their functional status and quality of life after the infection.

In the current environment, these findings further point to the vital role of rehabilitation health professionals in the coming years and the urgent need to develop strategies to assist COVID-19 survivors.

KeywordsImmunology; Public Health; Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine; COVID-19; Allergy; Environmental and Occupational Health
Year2021
JournalExpert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Journal citation15 (9), pp. 1107-1120
PublisherInforma UK Limited
ISSN1747-6348
1747-6356
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2021.1893169
Web address (URL)https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17476348.2021.1893169
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/625657
hdl:10545/625657
Output statusPublished
Publication dates04 Mar 2021
Publication process dates
Accepted17 Feb 2021
Deposited12 Mar 2021
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Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

ContributorsFederal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil, São Paulo State University, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL and University of Derby
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Faghy, Mark and Brown, Peter I 2019. Functional training of the inspiratory muscles improves load carriage performance. Ergonomics. 62 (11), pp. 1439-1449. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2019.1652352
Estimating physical activity in children aged 8–11 Years using Accelerometry: Contributions from fundamental movement skills and different Accelerometer placements
Duncan, Mike, Roscoe, Clare M. P., Faghy, Mark, Tallis, Jason and Eyre, Emma 2019. Estimating physical activity in children aged 8–11 Years using Accelerometry: Contributions from fundamental movement skills and different Accelerometer placements. Frontiers in Physiology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00242
P25 Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for adults discharged from hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) – a feasibility study
HJ Pick, MA Faghy, G Cresswell, WS Lim, T Bewick and Faghy, M. 2018. P25 Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for adults discharged from hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) – a feasibility study. BMJ Journals. https://doi.org/10.1136/thorax-2018-212555.183
Active recovery strategy and lactate clearance in elite swimmers
Mark A. Faghy, Mitch Lomax and Peter I. Brown 2018. Active recovery strategy and lactate clearance in elite swimmers. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 59 (9), pp. 1487-1491. https://doi.org/10.23736/s0022-4707.18.09228-9
From startline to frontline: the application of respiratory exercise physiology to occupational performance
Faghy, Mark, Blacker, Sam D. and Brown, Peter I. 2017. From startline to frontline: the application of respiratory exercise physiology to occupational performance. Sport and Exercise Scientist.
Whole body active warm up and inspiratory muscle warm up do not improve running performance when carrying thoracic loads
Faghy, Mark and Brown, Peter I. 2017. Whole body active warm up and inspiratory muscle warm up do not improve running performance when carrying thoracic loads. Applied physiology, nutrition, and metabolism. 42 (8). https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0711
Impact of Weekly Swimming Training Distance on the Ergogenicity of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Well-Trained Youth Swimmers
Lomax M, Kapus J, Brown PI and Faghy M 2017. Impact of Weekly Swimming Training Distance on the Ergogenicity of Inspiratory Muscle Training in Well-Trained Youth Swimmers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 33 (8), pp. 2185-2193. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000002375
Functional inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves load carriage performance greater than traditional IMT techniques: 1652 Board #305 June 2, 9: 00 AM - 10: 30 AM.
Faghy, Mark, Lindley, Martin R. and Brown, Peter I. 2016. Functional inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves load carriage performance greater than traditional IMT techniques: 1652 Board #305 June 2, 9: 00 AM - 10: 30 AM. Wolters Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000486377.59880.50
Pilot study : can inspiratory muscle training relieve symptoms ff dyspnoea and improve quality of life for advanced cancer patients ?: 1872 Board #24 June 2, 3: 30 PM - 5: 00 PM.
Lindley, Martin R., Faghy, Mark, Sowter, Heidi M. and Mickleborough, Timothy D. 2016. Pilot study : can inspiratory muscle training relieve symptoms ff dyspnoea and improve quality of life for advanced cancer patients ?: 1872 Board #24 June 2, 3: 30 PM - 5: 00 PM. Wolters Kluwer. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000486545.72377.ea
Effects of load mass carried in a backpack upon respiratory muscle fatigue
Faghy, Mark, Blacker, Sam D. and Brown, Peter I. 2016. Effects of load mass carried in a backpack upon respiratory muscle fatigue. European Journal of Sport Science. 16 (8), pp. 1032-1038. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2016.1202326
Limitations and trainability of the respiratory system during exercise with thoracic loads
Faghy, Mark 2016. Limitations and trainability of the respiratory system during exercise with thoracic loads. PhD Thesis https://doi.org/10.48773/92y02
Training the inspiratory muscles improves running performance when carrying a 25 kg thoracic load in a backpack
Faghy, Mark and Brown, Peter I. 2015. Training the inspiratory muscles improves running performance when carrying a 25 kg thoracic load in a backpack. European Journal of Sport Science. 16 (5), pp. 585-594. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2015.1071878
Preloaded Time Trial to Assess Load Carriage Performance
Mark A. Faghy and Peter I. Brown 2014. Preloaded Time Trial to Assess Load Carriage Performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 28 (12), pp. 3354-3362. https://doi.org/10.1519/jsc.0000000000000555
Thoracic load carriage-induced respiratory muscle fatigue
Faghy, M. and Brown, P.I. 2014. Thoracic load carriage-induced respiratory muscle fatigue. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 114, p. 1085–1093. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-2839-4
Ventilatory muscle strength, diaphragm thickness and pulmonary function in world-class powerlifters
Brown, Peter I., Venables, Heather, Liu, Hymsuen, de Witt, Julie T., Brown, Michelle R. and Faghy, Mark 2013. Ventilatory muscle strength, diaphragm thickness and pulmonary function in world-class powerlifters. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 113, p. 2849–2855. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2726-4