Production of artificial fingermarks. Part II – The use of a modified inkjet printer for the deposition of synthetic secretions
|Steiner, R., Moret, S. and Roux, C.
This study is the second part of a larger body of research dedicated to the production of synthetic secretions and the use of an inkjet printer to deposit realistic artificial fingermarks. An artificial emulsion combining eccrine and sebaceous compounds, which was described and tested in the first part of this research, was used as it showed a promising compatibility with common detection techniques. An inkjet printer was modified to print the emulsion on two different substrates: paper (porous) and acetate (non-porous). After optimisation of the printing parameters, multiple fingermarks were printed and processed with a range of standalone detection techniques: 1,2-indanedione-zinc, ninhydrin, Oil Red O, and physical developer on paper, and cyanoacrylate fuming, rhodamine 6G, gold/zinc vacuum metal deposition, and silver black powder on acetate. The detection techniques were also applied in sequence, which is considered one of the biggest advantages of the emulsion over simpler amino acid mixtures that are usable with amino acid reagents only. Natural fingermarks deposited by a single donor were processed with the same techniques for comparison. The effect of water immersion was also investigated, where fingermarks printed on paper were immersed in water for 15 min, before being processed with 1,2-indanedione-zinc and Oil Red O. The results showed that realistic-looking fingermarks could be printed on paper and that printing on acetate was also possible albeit of lower quality due to the nature of the substrate. The artificial fingermarks were successfully enhanced by all the detection techniques tested, at the notable exception of physical developer. The results obtained were very similar to what is generally observed with real fingermarks, and it was observed that the impact of water immersion on the artificial fingermarks was comparable as well. These findings open new perspectives for the development of multi-target quality control test strips or for the standardisation of proficiency testing and interlaboratory collaborative exercises where ground truth is crucial to guarantee comparable results and objective assessment.
|Detection; Simulant; Quality control; Standardisation; Residue; Printing; Emulsion
|Forensic Science International
|350, pp. 1-11
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
|Web address (URL)
|29 Jul 2023
|Publication process dates
|27 Oct 2023
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