Comparing Bio-Ester and Mineral-Oil Emulsions on Tool Wear and Surface Integrity in Finish Turning a Ni-Based Superalloy

Journal article


Paul Wood, Fathi Boud, Andrew Mantle, Wayne Carter, Syed Hossain, Urvashi Gunputh, Marzena Pawlik, Yiling Lu, José Díaz-Álvarez and María Henar Miguélez 2024. Comparing Bio-Ester and Mineral-Oil Emulsions on Tool Wear and Surface Integrity in Finish Turning a Ni-Based Superalloy. Lubricants. 12 (5), pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12050164
AuthorsPaul Wood, Fathi Boud, Andrew Mantle, Wayne Carter, Syed Hossain, Urvashi Gunputh, Marzena Pawlik, Yiling Lu, José Díaz-Álvarez and María Henar Miguélez
Abstract

Metalworking Fluid (MWF), also known in the industry as a coolant, provides essential lubrication and cooling to tools and workpieces, reducing friction and tool wear to enhance productivity and maintain the surface integrity of the part produced. It is predicted that the worldwide consumption of MWFs will reach 4 megatons by 2025 which represents 10% (38 million tonnes) of the fuel needed for road vehicles in the UK. Even today, MWFs used in industry for machining use formulations that are derived from fossil fuel and non-renewable energy generate a high waste stream that is incinerated. To hasten the pace to decarbonise manufacturing, in this paper, we use lab-based evidence to demonstrate that cleaner biobased MWFs can deliver at least equivalent performance to modern fossil fuel MWFs for hard alloy machining.

This paper compares the performance of two bio-ester and two mineral-oil emulsion metalworking fluids (MWFs) in finish turning an Inconel 718 alloy bar with a high hardness (HB 397–418). In this study, a coolant with a lean concentrate diluted at 6.5% to create an emulsion with stabilised water hardness was used to prepare each MWF. The finish-turning method used a small tool nose radius (0.4 mm) and small depth of cut (0.25 mm) to turn down 52.5-mm diameter bars in multiple passes to reach a maximum tool flank wear of 200 µm. In each MWF turning test, the tool flank wear, cutting forces, and surface roughness were measured against cut time. Chips from each MWF turning test were also collected at the same cut time instances. The surface and subsurface integrity on a workpiece obtained from each MWF turning test were compared by using a new unworn tool. Overall, for the machining parameters studied, the findings suggest the bio-esters were capable of equivalent machining performance as the mineral-oil emulsions, apart from one bio-ester that displayed improved surface roughness. Common to all MWF turning tests was a change in the chip form at low flank wear, which is discussed. Further findings discussed include the sensitivity of the concentration of the MWF diluted in the emulsion and the effect of the workpiece hardness within the batch used, with useful recommendations to improve the finish-turning method for the assessment of MWFs.

KeywordsInconel 718; finish turning; coolant; tool wear; surface integrity; cutting forces; bio-ester; mineral-oil; Metalworking Fluid (MWF)
Year2024
JournalLubricants
Journal citation12 (5), pp. 1-22
PublisherMDPI
ISSN2075-4442
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12050164
Web address (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants12050164
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Output statusPublished
Publication dates08 May 2024
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Deposited14 May 2024
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