Design and Manufacture of One-Size-Fits-All Healthcare Face Shields for the NHS During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Journal article


Gunputh, U., Williams, G., Leighton, A., Carter, W., Varasteh, H., Pawlik, M., Lu, Y., Sims, R., Lyons, M., Clementson, J., Tripathi, G., Nick Chambers, Matt Roe and Wood, P. 2022. Design and Manufacture of One-Size-Fits-All Healthcare Face Shields for the NHS During the COVID-19 Pandemic. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4258668
AuthorsGunputh, U., Williams, G., Leighton, A., Carter, W., Varasteh, H., Pawlik, M., Lu, Y., Sims, R., Lyons, M., Clementson, J., Tripathi, G., Nick Chambers, Matt Roe and Wood, P.
Abstract

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a shortage of personal protective equipment, PPE, which resulted in non-certified PPE being used by healthcare staffs. These would not provide the appropriate protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Together with the local NHS Trust (University Hospitals of Derby and Burton (UHDB) NHS Foundation Trust) and a local small and medium enterprise (SME), Riverside Medical Packaging Ltd, the University of Derby (UoD) developed test protocols for PPE with a one-size-fits-all concept. Building on best practice in reviewing the literature and current design requirements, key design parameters were identified such as a minimum strap width and comfort level for healthcare related Face Shield. Two strap headbands made from fabric and elastomer with linear stiffness of 26.5N/m and 112N/m respectively were tested with respect to fit and comfort on small and large arc-shaped models. There was an exponential change in pressure from the side to the middle of the strap headbands. The high stiffness of the elastomer in a radial set-up influenced the pressure exerted on a wearer’s head when the elastomer strap was used. Meanwhile the coefficient of friction between the fabric strap and arc-shaped model influenced the pressure exerted when a fabric strap was used. The ergonomics of the designed Face Shields supported the one-size-fits-all concept, whereby various gender and head circumferences were considered. The findings in this paper will promote new standards in the design of PPE with a one-size-fits-all target.

KeywordsCOVID-19, ; PPE, ; Face shield, ; One-size-fits-all, ; coefficient of friction, ; Ergonomics
Year2022
JournalSSRN Electronic Journal
ISSN1556-5068
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4258668
Web address (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4258668
Output statusSubmitted
Publication dates
Online26 Oct 2022
Publication process dates
Deposited15 Jun 2023
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Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes.
Adaikalakoteswari, A, Jayashri, R, Sukumar, N, Venkataraman, H, Pradeepa, R, Gokulakrishnan, K, Anjana, R.M, McTernan, P.G, Tripathi, G, Patel, V and Kumar, S. 2014. Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with adverse lipid profile in Europeans and Indians with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular Diabetology. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-014-0129-4
Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with lower cord blood HDL cholesterol in white caucasians living in the UK
Adaikalakoteswari, A, Vatish, M, Lawson, A, Wood, C, Sivakumar, K, McTernan, P, Webster, C, Anderson, N, Yajnik, C, Tripathi, G and Saravanan, P 2015. Low maternal vitamin B12 status is associated with lower cord blood HDL cholesterol in white caucasians living in the UK. Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7042401
Enhanced thermic effect of food, postprandial NEFA suppression and raised adiponectin in obese women who eat slowly.
Reddy, N.L, Peng, C, Carreira, M.C, Halder, L, Hattersley, J, Piya, M.K, Tripathi, G, Randeva, H.S, Casanueva, F.F, McTernan, P.G and Kumar, S 2014. Enhanced thermic effect of food, postprandial NEFA suppression and raised adiponectin in obese women who eat slowly. Cinical Endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.12652
Maternal inheritance of circulating irisin in humans.
Al-Daghri, N.M, Al-Attas, O.S, Alokail, M.S, Alkharfy, K.M, Yousef, M, Vinodson, B, Amer, O.E, Alnaami, A.M, Sabico, S, Tripathi, G and Piya, M.K. 2014. Maternal inheritance of circulating irisin in humans. Clincal Science. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS20130426
Surface charge visualization at viable living cells
Perry, D, Paulose Nadappuram, B, Momotenko, D, Voyias, P.D, Page, A, Tripathi, G, Frenguelli, B.G and Unwin, P.R 2016. Surface charge visualization at viable living cells. Journal of the American Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.5b13153
Impact of gut hormone FGF-19 on type-2 diabetes and mitochondrial recovery in a prospective study of obese diabetic women undergoing bariatric surgery.
de la Escalera, L.M, Kyrou, I, Vrbikova, J, Hainer, V, Sramkova, P, Fried, M, Piya, M.K, Kumar, S, Tripathi, G and McTernan, P.G 2017. Impact of gut hormone FGF-19 on type-2 diabetes and mitochondrial recovery in a prospective study of obese diabetic women undergoing bariatric surgery. BMC Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-017-0797-5
Identification of brown adipose tissue using MR imaging in a human adult with histological and immunohistochemical confirmation.
Reddy, N.L, Jones, T.A, Wayte, S.C, Adesanya, O, Sankar, S, Yeo, Y.C, Tripathi, G, McTernan, P.G, Randeva, H.S, Kumar, S and Hutchinson, C.E 2014. Identification of brown adipose tissue using MR imaging in a human adult with histological and immunohistochemical confirmation. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-2036
Postprandial effect of a high-fat meal on endotoxemia in Arab women with and without insulin-resistance-related diseases.
Al-Disi, D, A-Daghri, N, Khan, N, Alfadda, A, Sallam, R, Alsaif, M, Sabico, S, Tripathi, G and McTernan, P 2015. Postprandial effect of a high-fat meal on endotoxemia in Arab women with and without insulin-resistance-related diseases. Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7085290
Short-chain fatty acid acetate stimulates adipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis via GPR43 in brown adipocytes.
Hu, J, Kyrou, I, Tan, B.K, Dimitriadis, G.K, Ramanjaneya, M, Tripathi, G, Patel, V, James, S, Kawan, M, Chen, J and Randeva, H.S 2016. Short-chain fatty acid acetate stimulates adipogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis via GPR43 in brown adipocytes. Endocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2015-1944
Association of vitamin B12 with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers related to cardiometabolic risk in Saudi subjects
Al-Daghri, N.M, Rahman, S, Sabico, S, Yakout, S, Wani, K, Al-Attas, O.S, Saravanan, P, Tripathi, G, McTernan, P.G and Alokail, M.S 2016. Association of vitamin B12 with pro-inflammatory cytokines and biochemical markers related to cardiometabolic risk in Saudi subjects. Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090460
Do office workers adjust their chairs? End-user knowledge, use and barriers to chair adjustment.
Underwood, Diana and Sims, Ruth 2019. Do office workers adjust their chairs? End-user knowledge, use and barriers to chair adjustment. Applied Ergonomics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2018.12.007
Effects of the graphene on the mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymer - a numerical and experimental study
Pawlik, Marzena 2019. Effects of the graphene on the mechanical properties of fibre reinforced polymer - a numerical and experimental study. Thesis https://doi.org/10.48773/94384
Design for plant modularisation: nuclear and SMR.
Wrigley, Paul, Wood, Paul, Stewart, Paul, Hall, Richard and Robertson, Dan 2018. Design for plant modularisation: nuclear and SMR. 2018 26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering Conference Proceedings. https://doi.org/10.1115/ICONE26-81760
Module layout optimization using a genetic algorithm in light water modular nuclear reactor power plants.
Wrigley, P.A., Wood, P., Stewart, Paul and Robertson, D. 2018. Module layout optimization using a genetic algorithm in light water modular nuclear reactor power plants. Nuclear Engineering and Design. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2018.10.023
Anodised TiO 2 nanotubes as a scaffold for antibacterial silver nanoparticles on titanium implants.
Gunputh, Urvashi Fowdar, Le, Huirong, Handy, Richard and Tredwin, Christopher 2018. Anodised TiO 2 nanotubes as a scaffold for antibacterial silver nanoparticles on titanium implants. Materials Science and Engineering: C. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.05.074
Mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ31B magnesium alloy processed by I-ECAP.
Gzyl, Michal, Rosochowski, Andrzej, Pesci, Raphael, Olejnik, Lech, Yakushina, Evgenia and Wood, Paul 2013. Mechanical properties and microstructure of AZ31B magnesium alloy processed by I-ECAP. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-2094-z
Module layout optimization using a genetic algorithm in light water modular nuclear reactor power plants.
Wrigley, P., Wood, Paul, Stewart, Paul, Hall, Richard and Robertson, D. 2018. Module layout optimization using a genetic algorithm in light water modular nuclear reactor power plants. Nuclear Engineering and Design. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2018.10.023
HADRIAN meets AUNT-SUE
Marshall, Russell, Porter, J. Mark, Sims, Ruth, Gyi, Diane E. and Case, Keith 2005. HADRIAN meets AUNT-SUE.
Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning.
Porter, J. Mark, Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Gyi, Diane E., Sims, Ruth and Summerskill, Steve 2006. Case study 2: HADRIAN: A human factors computer-aided inclusive design tool for transport planning. Loughborough University. Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1049/ic:20060184
Constraint modelling in 'design for all'
Case, Keith, Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie, Marshall, Russell, Porter, J. Mark, Gyi, Diane E. and Sims, Ruth 2003. Constraint modelling in 'design for all'. CIT Press.
Kitchen living in later life: Exploring ergonomic problems, coping strategies and design solutions
Maguire, Martin C., Peace, Sheila, Nicolle, Colette, Marshall, Russell, Sims, Ruth, Percival, John and Lawton, Clare 2014. Kitchen living in later life: Exploring ergonomic problems, coping strategies and design solutions.
Supporting older and disabled people’s needs in product, environment and service design
Sims, Ruth, Marshall, Russell, Summerskill, Steve, Gyi, Diane E. and Case, Keith 2012. Supporting older and disabled people’s needs in product, environment and service design.
Case, Keith, Marshall, Russell, Hogberg, Dan, Summerskill, Steve, Gyi, Diane E. and Sims, Ruth 2009. ???? Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02809-0_71
Inclusive design for the mobility impaired
Porter, J. Mark, Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Gyi, Diane E., Sims, Ruth and Summerskill, Steve 2008. Inclusive design for the mobility impaired. in: CRC Press.
HADRIAN: a human modelling CAD tool to promote "design for all"
Porter, J. Mark, Marshall, Russell, Sims, Ruth, Gyi, Diane E. and Case, Keith 2003. HADRIAN: a human modelling CAD tool to promote "design for all".
Design and evaluation: end users, user datasets and personas
Marshall, Russell, Cook, Sharon, Mitchell, Val, Summerskill, Steve, Haines, Victoria, Maguire, Martin C., Sims, Ruth, Gyi, Diane E. and Case, Keith 2013. Design and evaluation: end users, user datasets and personas. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2013.03.008
Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil
Tripodi, Antonino, Quigley, Claire, Sims, Ruth, van de Leur, Martijn, van der Kloof, Angela, Fornasiero, Alessandro and Carroccia, Roberto 2011. Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil.
Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil
Appelt, Viet, Astapenko, Anna, Musso, Antonio, Corazza, Maria V., Tripodi, Antonino, Quigley, Claire, Rackliff, Lucy, Danton, Russell, Pearce, Duncan, Talbot, Rachel, Sims, Ruth, Rios, Iaci, Pietrantonio, Hugo, Quintanilha, Jose Alberto, Magar, Rajendra and Kharat, Mahendra 2011. Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil.
Transport planning guidelines for vulnerable road user safety in emerging economies.
Quigley, Claire, Sims, Ruth, Hill, Julian, Tripodi, Antonino, Persia, Luca, Pietrantonio, Hugo and Kharat, Mahendra 2012. Transport planning guidelines for vulnerable road user safety in emerging economies.
Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil
Quigley, Claire, Sims, Ruth, Usami, D. Shingo, Tripodi, Antonino, Pietrantonio, Hugo and Kharat, Mahendra 2011. Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil.
Supporting a design-driven approach to social inclusion and accessibility in transport
Marshall, Russell, Summerskill, Steve, Case, Keith, Hussain, Amjad, Gyi, Diane E., Sims, Ruth, Morris, Andrew and Barnes, Jo 2016. Supporting a design-driven approach to social inclusion and accessibility in transport. https://doi.org/10.17645/si.v4i3.521
HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all.
Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Porter, J. Mark, Summerskill, Steve, Gyi, Diane E., Davis, Peter and Sims, Ruth 2010. HADRIAN: a virtual approach to design for all. https://doi.org/10.1080/09544820903317019
Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study
Summerskill, Steve, Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Gyi, Diane E., Sims, Ruth and Davis, Peter 2009. Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02809-0_77
A design ergonomics approach to accessibility and user needs in transport
Marshall, Russell, Gyi, Diane E., Case, Keith, Porter, J. Mark, Sims, Ruth, Summerskill, Steve and Davis, Peter 2009. A design ergonomics approach to accessibility and user needs in transport. Taylor & Francis.
In search of design synthesis by linking ergonomic evaluation and constraint modelling to attain design for all
Goonetilleke, Thanuja Shiromie, Case, Keith, Marshall, Russell, Porter, J. Mark, Gyi, Diane E. and Sims, Ruth 2003. In search of design synthesis by linking ergonomic evaluation and constraint modelling to attain design for all.
Age friendly kitchens: a study based on social history and ergonomics
Maguire, Martin C., Nicolle, Colette, Marshall, Russell, Sims, Ruth, Lawton, Clare, Peace, Sheila and Percival, John 2011. Age friendly kitchens: a study based on social history and ergonomics. Helen Hamlyn Research Centre (Royal College of Art).
'Beyond Jack and Jill': designing for individuals using HADRIAN
Porter, J. Mark, Case, Keith, Marshall, Russell, Gyi, Diane E. and Sims, Ruth 2004. 'Beyond Jack and Jill': designing for individuals using HADRIAN. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2003.08.002
Activities of daily life still cause problems for many older and physically impaired people.
Sims, Ruth, Gyi, Diane E., Marshall, Russell and Case, Keith 2012. Activities of daily life still cause problems for many older and physically impaired people.
Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study
Summerskill, Steve, Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Gyi, Diane E., Sims, Ruth, Davis, Peter, Day, Philip N., Rohan, C. and Birnie, S. 2010. Validation of the HADRIAN system using an ATM evaluation case study. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJHFMS.2010.040275
Virtual fitting trails using SAMMIE and HADRIAN
Marshall, Russell, Porter, J. Mark, Case, Keith, Sims, Ruth and Gyi, Diane E. 2003. Virtual fitting trails using SAMMIE and HADRIAN.
Virtual task simulation for inclusive design.
Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Summerskill, Steve, Sims, Ruth, Gyi, Diane E. and Davis, Peter 2009. Virtual task simulation for inclusive design. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-02809-0
Supporting an inclusive, sustainable approach to design and manufacture.
Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Gyi, Diane E., Summerskill, Steve and Sims, Ruth 2011. Supporting an inclusive, sustainable approach to design and manufacture.
Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil
Sims, Ruth, Quigley, Claire, Tripodi, Antonino, van der Kloof, Angela, van de Leur, Martijn, Wolf, Daniel and Pietrantonio, Hugo 2011. Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil.
Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil
Quigley, Claire, Sims, Ruth, Tripodi, Antonino, Rios, Iaci, Wolf, Daniel, Magar, Rajendra and Quintanilha, Jose Alberto 2011. Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil.
The contribution that a co-design approach can make to idea generation for workplace travel plans
Ross, Tracy, Mitchell, Val, May, Andrew and Sims, Ruth 2013. The contribution that a co-design approach can make to idea generation for workplace travel plans. Universities' Transport Study Group (UTSG).
Development and evaluation of task based digital human modeling for inclusive design
Marshall, Russell, Summerskill, Steve, Case, Keith, Gyi, Diane E. and Sims, Ruth 2010. Development and evaluation of task based digital human modeling for inclusive design. Taylor & Francis.
'Design for all': methods and data to support designers
Sims, Ruth 2003. 'Design for all': methods and data to support designers. Thesis
Older people's experiences of their kitchens: dishes and wishes.
Sims, Ruth, Marshall, Russell, Maguire, Martin C., Nicolle, Colette, Lawton, Clare, Pearce, S. and Percival, John 2011. Older people's experiences of their kitchens: dishes and wishes.
A computer aided ergonomics tool to support accessible transport design
Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Porter, J. Mark, Sims, Ruth and Gyi, Diane E. 2005. A computer aided ergonomics tool to support accessible transport design.
Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil
Quigley, Claire, Sims, Ruth, Corazza, Maria V., Di Mascio, Paolo, Musso, Antonio, Persia, Luca, Tripodi, Antonino, Kharat, Mahendra, Pietrantonio, Hugo, van der Kloof, Angela and van den Noort, Pascal 2011. Innovative guidelines and tools for vulnerable road users safety in India and Brazil.
Using Hadrian for eliciting virtual user feedback in 'Design For All'
Marshall, Russell, Porter, J. Mark, Case, Keith, Sims, Ruth and Gyi, Diane E. 2004. Using Hadrian for eliciting virtual user feedback in 'Design For All'. https://doi.org/10.1243/0954405041897149
Multivariate design inclusion using HADRIAN.
Marshall, Russell, Summerskill, Steve, Porter, J. Mark, Case, Keith, Sims, Ruth, Gyi, Diane E. and Davis, Peter 2008. Multivariate design inclusion using HADRIAN.
The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport.
Marshall, Russell, Porter, J. Mark, Sims, Ruth, Summerskill, Steve, Gyi, Diane E. and Case, Keith 2009. The HADRIAN approach to accessible transport. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2009-0881
Empirical investigation of the impact of using co-design methods when generating proposals for sustainable travel solutions
Mitchell, Val, Ross, Tracy, May, Andrew, Sims, Ruth and Parker, Christopher J. 2015. Empirical investigation of the impact of using co-design methods when generating proposals for sustainable travel solutions. https://doi.org/10.1080/15710882.2015.1091894
Virtual task analysis in 'design for all'.
Marshall, Russell, Case, Keith, Porter, J. Mark, Gyi, Diane E. and Sims, Ruth 2003. Virtual task analysis in 'design for all'.
HADRIAN: “I am not a number, I am a free man!”
Porter, J. Mark, Marshall, Russell, Sims, Ruth, Case, Keith and Gyi, Diane E. 2006. HADRIAN: “I am not a number, I am a free man!”. Chalmers University.
Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods
Gyi, Diane E., Sims, Ruth, Porter, J. Mark, Marshall, Russell and Case, Keith 2004. Representing older and disabled people in virtual user trials: data collection methods. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2004.04.002
An investigation into metal coated additively manufactured polymer lattice structures
Farhan Khan, Muhammad, Williams, Gavin and Maligno, Angelo 2016. An investigation into metal coated additively manufactured polymer lattice structures. OMICS International. https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-0022.C1.037
Multiscale modelling of fluid and solute transport in soft tissues and microvessels
Lu, Yiling and Wang, Wen 2010. Multiscale modelling of fluid and solute transport in soft tissues and microvessels. Journal of Multiscale Modelling. https://doi.org/10.1142/S175697371000028X
Left atrial wall stress distribution and its relationship to electrophysiologic remodeling in persistent atrial fibrillation
Hunter, R. J., Liu, Yankai, Lu, Yiling, Wang, Wen and Schilling, R. J. 2012. Left atrial wall stress distribution and its relationship to electrophysiologic remodeling in persistent atrial fibrillation. Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.111.965541
Inert gas clearance from tissue by co-currently and counter-currently arranged microvessels
Lu, Yiling, Michel, C. C. and Wang, Wen 2012. Inert gas clearance from tissue by co-currently and counter-currently arranged microvessels. Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00006.2012
Collection of anthropometry from older and physically impaired persons: traditional methods versus TC2 3-D body scanner
Sims, Ruth, Marshall, Russell, Gyi, Diane E., Summerskill, Steve and Case, Keith 2013. Collection of anthropometry from older and physically impaired persons: traditional methods versus TC2 3-D body scanner. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2011.10.002
Older people's experiences of their kitchens: 2000 to 2010
Sims, Ruth, Maguire, Martin C., Nicolle, Colette, Marshall, Russell, Lawton, Clare, Peace, Sheila and Percival, John 2013. Older people's experiences of their kitchens: 2000 to 2010. Housing, Care and Support. https://doi.org/10.1108/14608791211238386