Opening doors to nature: Bringing calm and raising aspirations of vulnerable young people through nature-based intervention

Journal article


Hallam, Jenny, Richardson, Miles, Richardson, Elizabeth and Ferguson, Fiona 2019. Opening doors to nature: Bringing calm and raising aspirations of vulnerable young people through nature-based intervention. The Humanistic Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1037/hum0000148
AuthorsHallam, Jenny, Richardson, Miles, Richardson, Elizabeth and Ferguson, Fiona
Abstract

This qualitative study explores the experiences of YMCA residents who participated in a nature-based intervention designed to support wellbeing run by Derbyshire Wildlife Trust and YMCA Derbyshire. The intervention ran over 9 weeks and involved taking groups of residents off site for a range of outdoor activities from allotment gardening to nature conservation in various outdoor environments.  After the intervention took place semi-structured interviews, which explored the personal journeys of 8 residents who had participated in the intervention, were conducted. An IPA analysis of the interviews identified three superordinate themes: building social relationships, developing skills and developing feelings of self-worth and managing emotions through nature. It is argued that the intervention enabled the residents to feel part of a supportive community which enabled a positive shift in identity. Furthermore, the programme helped residents manage their emotions, supporting their mental health and promoting a general sense of wellbeing. This is especially important, given that members of the intervention have a history of mental health issues and often come from a background of higher socio-economic deprivation, where opportunities for social cohesion and nature connectedness are scarce.

KeywordsQualitative research; nature; wellbeing, community
Year2019
JournalThe Humanistic Psychologist
PublisherAmerican Psychological Association
ISSN08873267
15473333
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1037/hum0000148
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/624124
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/
hdl:10545/624124
Publication dates08 Jul 2019
Publication process dates
Deposited16 Aug 2019, 14:28
AcceptedMay 2019
Rights

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States

ContributorsUniversity of Derby
File
File Access Level
Open
File
File Access Level
Open
File
Permalink -

https://repository.derby.ac.uk/item/93wv7/opening-doors-to-nature-bringing-calm-and-raising-aspirations-of-vulnerable-young-people-through-nature-based-intervention

Download files

  • 10
    total views
  • 2
    total downloads
  • 0
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Three good things in nature: a nature-based positive psychological intervention to improve mood and well-being for depression and anxiety
Keenan, Rosaline, Lumber, Ryan, Richardson, Miles and Sheffield, David 2021. Three good things in nature: a nature-based positive psychological intervention to improve mood and well-being for depression and anxiety. Journal of Public Mental Health. 20 (4), pp. 243-250. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-02-2021-0029
Visible Garden Biodiversity Leads to an Increase in Noticing Nature, Which in Turn Leads to an Increase in Nature Connectedness
Iain Hamlin and Miles Richardson 2022. Visible Garden Biodiversity Leads to an Increase in Noticing Nature, Which in Turn Leads to an Increase in Nature Connectedness. Mary Ann Liebert Inc. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/uamwg
Improving Nature Connectedness in Adults: A Meta-Analysis, Review and Agenda
David Sheffield, Carly W. Butler and Miles Richardson 2022. Improving Nature Connectedness in Adults: A Meta-Analysis, Review and Agenda. Sustainability. 14 (19), pp. 1-23. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141912494
A narrative synthesis using the ecological systems theory for understanding a woman’s ability to continue breastfeeding
Jackson, J., Safari, R. and Hallam, J. 2022. A narrative synthesis using the ecological systems theory for understanding a woman’s ability to continue breastfeeding. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/14635240.2022.2098162
Nature connectedness, nonattachment and engagement with nature’s beauty predict pro-nature conservation behaviour
Barrows, P., Richardson, M., Hamlin, I. and Van Gordon, W. 2022. Nature connectedness, nonattachment and engagement with nature’s beauty predict pro-nature conservation behaviour. Ecopsychology. 14 (2), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2021.0036
An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis exploring the experiences of mothers who relate to the term ‘Gender Disappointment’
Young, Nina, Hallam, Jenny, Jackson, Jessica, Barnes, Christopher and Montague, Jane 2021. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis exploring the experiences of mothers who relate to the term ‘Gender Disappointment’. Journal of health visiting. https://doi.org/10.12968/johv.2021.9.11.470
Nature Connectedness and Biophilic Design
Richardson, Miles and Butler, Carly 2021. Nature Connectedness and Biophilic Design. Building Research and Information. https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2021.2006594
Actively Noticing Nature (Not Just Time in Nature) Helps Promote Nature Connectedness
Richardson, Miles, Hamlin, Iain, Butler, Carly, Thomas, Rory and Hunt, Alex 2021. Actively Noticing Nature (Not Just Time in Nature) Helps Promote Nature Connectedness. Ecopsychology. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2021.0023
‘I don’t wanna go. I’m staying. This is my home now.’ Analysis of an intervention for connecting young people to urban nature.
Hallam, Jenny, Gallagher, Laurel and Harvey, Caroline 2021. ‘I don’t wanna go. I’m staying. This is my home now.’ Analysis of an intervention for connecting young people to urban nature. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127341
‘It’s quite a taboo subject’: an investigation of mother’s experiences of breastfeeding beyond infancy and the challenges they face
Jackson, Jessica and Hallam, Jenny 2021. ‘It’s quite a taboo subject’: an investigation of mother’s experiences of breastfeeding beyond infancy and the challenges they face. Women and Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2021.1938790
Moments, not minutes: The nature-wellbeing relationship
Richardson, Miles, Passmore, Holli-Anne, Lumber, Ryan, Thomas, Rory and Hunt, Alex 2021. Moments, not minutes: The nature-wellbeing relationship. University of Waikato. https://doi.org/10.5502/ijw.v11i1.1267
Nature Engagement for Human and Nature’s Wellbeing during the Corona Pandemic
Richardson, Miles and Hamlin, Iain 2021. Nature Engagement for Human and Nature’s Wellbeing during the Corona Pandemic. Emerald. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-02-2021-0016
Mapping urban greenspace use from mobile phone GPS data
Mears, Meghann, Brindley, Paul, Barrows, P., Richardson, Miles and Maheswaran, Ravi 2021. Mapping urban greenspace use from mobile phone GPS data. PLos ONE. 16 (7), p. e0248622. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248622
The secret language of flowers: insights from an outdoor, arts-based intervention designed to connect primary school children to locally accessible nature
Hallam, Jenny, Gallagher, Laurel and Owen, Kay 2021. The secret language of flowers: insights from an outdoor, arts-based intervention designed to connect primary school children to locally accessible nature. Environmental education research. 28 (1), pp. 128-145. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2021.1994926
A Novel Mindful Nature Connectedness Intervention Improves Paranoia but Not Anxiety in a Nonclinical Population
Muneghina, Orso, Van Gordon, William, Barrows, P. and Richardson, Miles 2021. A Novel Mindful Nature Connectedness Intervention Improves Paranoia but Not Anxiety in a Nonclinical Population. Ecopsychology. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2020.0068
Development and implementation of evaluation resources for a green outdoor educational program
Garip, Gulcan, Richardson, Miles, Tinkler, Abigail, Glover, Susannah and Rees, Alice 2020. Development and implementation of evaluation resources for a green outdoor educational program. Journal of Environmental Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/00958964.2020.1845588
Against all odds—why UK mothers’ breastfeeding beyond infancy are turning to their international peers for emotional and informative support
Jackson, Jessica and Hallam, Jenny 2020. Against all odds—why UK mothers’ breastfeeding beyond infancy are turning to their international peers for emotional and informative support. Informa UK Limited. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2020.1744147
The magic of the mundane: the vulnerable web of connections between urban nature and wellbeing
Dobson, Julian, Brindley, Paul, Birch, Jo, Henneberry, John, McEwan, Kirsten, Mears, Meagan and Richardson, Miles 2020. The magic of the mundane: the vulnerable web of connections between urban nature and wellbeing. Cities. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102989
The green care code: How nature connectedness and simple activities help explain pro‐nature conservation behaviours
Richardson, Miles, Passmore, Holli‐Anne, barbett, lea, Lumber, Ryan, Thomas, Rory and Hunt, Alex 2020. The green care code: How nature connectedness and simple activities help explain pro‐nature conservation behaviours. People and Nature. https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10117
Dataset: The Green Care Code: How Nature Connectedness and Simple Activities Help Explain Pro-Nature Conservation Behaviours
Richardson, Miles 2020. Dataset: The Green Care Code: How Nature Connectedness and Simple Activities Help Explain Pro-Nature Conservation Behaviours.
Assessing the feasibility of public engagement in a smartphone app to improve well-being through nature connection ( Evaluation of the feasibility of citizen engagement through a smartphone app to improve well-being through connection with nature )
McEwan, Kirsten, Richardson, Miles, Sheffield, David, Ferguson, Fiona and Brindley, Paul 2021. Assessing the feasibility of public engagement in a smartphone app to improve well-being through nature connection ( Evaluation of the feasibility of citizen engagement through a smartphone app to improve well-being through connection with nature ). PsyEcology. https://doi.org/10.1080/21711976.2020.1851878
Nature contact, nature connectedness and associations with health, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours
White, Mathew P., Hunt, Anne, Richardson, Miles, Pahl, Sabine, Burt, Jim and Leanne, Martin 2020. Nature contact, nature connectedness and associations with health, wellbeing and pro-environmental behaviours. Journal of Environmental Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2020.101389
Where the wild things are! Do urban green spaces with greater avian biodiversity promote more positive emotions in humans?
Cameron, Ross, Brindley, Paul, Mears, Meagan, McEwan, Kirsten, Ferguson, Fiona, Sheffield, David, Jorgensen, Anna, Riley, J, Goodwick, J, Ballard, L and Richardson, Miles 2020. Where the wild things are! Do urban green spaces with greater avian biodiversity promote more positive emotions in humans? Urban Ecosystems. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-020-00929-z
Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Kotera, Y., Richardson, Miles and Sheffield, David 2020. Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00363-4
Measuring actions for nature—development and validation of a pro-nature conservation behaviour scale
Barbett, Lea, Stupple, Edward, Sweet, Michael, Schofield, M. and Richardson, Miles 2020. Measuring actions for nature—development and validation of a pro-nature conservation behaviour scale. Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12124885
The good things in urban nature: A thematic framework for optimising urban planning for nature connectedness
McEwan, Kirsten, Ferguson, Fiona J, Richardson, Miles and Cameron, Ross 2019. The good things in urban nature: A thematic framework for optimising urban planning for nature connectedness. Landscape and Urban Planning. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.103687
A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature
McEwan, Kirsten, Richardson, Miles, Sheffield, David, Ferguson, Fiona and Brindley, Paul 2019. A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183373
Empathy mediates the relationship between nature connectedness and both callous and uncaring traits
Fido, Dean and Richardson, Miles 2019. Empathy mediates the relationship between nature connectedness and both callous and uncaring traits. Ecopsychology. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dtc42
Beyond restoration: considering emotion regulation in natural well-being
Richardson, Miles 2019. Beyond restoration: considering emotion regulation in natural well-being. Ecopsychology. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2019.0012
The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis
Pritchard, Alison, Richardson, Miles, Sheffield, David and McEwan, Kirsten 2019. The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00118-6
'I felt like I was doing something wrong': A qualitative exploration of mothers' experiences of breastfeeding
Jackson, Jessica and Hallam, Jenny 2019. 'I felt like I was doing something wrong': A qualitative exploration of mothers' experiences of breastfeeding. Journal of health visiting. https://doi.org/10.12968/johv.2019.7.4.166
Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature
McEwan, Kirsten, Richardson, Miles, Brindley, Paul, Sheffield, David, Tait, Crawford, Johnson, Steve, Sutch, Hana and Ferguson, Fiona 2019. Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature. Translational Behavioral Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibz027
A measure of nature connectedness for children and adults: Validation, performance, and insights
Richardson, Miles, Hunt, Anne, Hinds, Joe, Bragg, Rachel, Fido, Dean, Petronzi, D., Barbett, Lea, Clitherow, Theodore and White, Matthew 2019. A measure of nature connectedness for children and adults: Validation, performance, and insights. Sustainability. 11 (12), p. 3250. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123250
Home to us all: how connecting with nature helps us care for ourselves and the Earth.
Charles, Cheryl, Keenleyside, Karen, Chapple, Rosalie, Kilburn, Bill, Salah van der Leest, Pascale, Allen, Diana, Richardson, Miles, Giusti, Matteo, Franklin, Lawrence, Harbrow, Michael, Wilson, Ruth, Moss, Andrew, Metcalf, Louise and Camargo, Luis 2018. Home to us all: how connecting with nature helps us care for ourselves and the Earth. Children & Nature Network.
Evaluating connection to nature and the relationship with conservation behaviour in children
Hughes, Joelene, Richardson, Miles and Lumber, Ryan 2018. Evaluating connection to nature and the relationship with conservation behaviour in children. Journal for Nature Conservation. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2018.07.004
30 days wild: who benefits most?
Richardson, Miles, McEwan, Kirsten and Garip, Gulcan 2018. 30 days wild: who benefits most? Journal of Public Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-02-2018-0018
30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being.
Richardson, Miles and McEwan, Kirsten 2018. 30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01500
Empowering women through the positive birth movement.
Hallam, Jenny, Howard, Christopher, Locke, Abigail and Thomas, Melissa 2018. Empowering women through the positive birth movement. Journal of Gender Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2018.1469972
Problematic smartphone use, nature connectedness, and anxiety.
Richardson, Miles, Hussain, Zaheer and Griffiths, Mark D. 2018. Problematic smartphone use, nature connectedness, and anxiety. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.10
Mindfulness and nature
Van Gordon, William, Shonin, Edo and Richardson, Miles 2018. Mindfulness and nature. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0883-6
Effect of self-adjustable masking noise on open-plan office worker’s concentration, task performance and attitudes
Vassie, Ken and Richardson, Miles 2017. Effect of self-adjustable masking noise on open-plan office worker’s concentration, task performance and attitudes. Applied Acoustics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apacoust.2016.12.011
Beyond knowing nature: Contact, emotion, compassion, meaning, and beauty are pathways to nature connection
Lumber, Ryan, Richardson, Miles and Sheffield, David 2017. Beyond knowing nature: Contact, emotion, compassion, meaning, and beauty are pathways to nature connection. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177186
Nature Connections 2016 conference report: Implications for research and practice
Lumber, Ryan, Hunt, Anne, Richardson, Miles and Harvey, Caroline 2017. Nature Connections 2016 conference report: Implications for research and practice. University of Derby.
An exploration of children's experiences of art in the classroom
Hallam, Jenny, Hewitt, Des and Buxton, Sarah 2014. An exploration of children's experiences of art in the classroom. International Journal of Art & Design Education. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2014.12022.x
An analysis of the presentation of art in the British primary school curriculum and its implications for teaching
Hallam, Jenny, Lee, Helen A. N. and Gupta, Mani Das 2007. An analysis of the presentation of art in the British primary school curriculum and its implications for teaching. International Journal of Art & Design Education. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-8070.2007.00530.x
Drawings as memory aids: optimising the drawing method to facilitate young children’s recall
Barlow, Claire, Jolley, Richard P. and Hallam, Jenny 2010. Drawings as memory aids: optimising the drawing method to facilitate young children’s recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1716
Governing the souls of young women: exploring the perspectives of mothers on parenting in the age of sexualisation
Howard, Chris, Hallam, Jenny and Brady, Katie 2014. Governing the souls of young women: exploring the perspectives of mothers on parenting in the age of sexualisation. Journal of Gender Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2014.952714
Children’s well-being and nature connectedness: Exploring the impact of a ‘3-good-things’ writing task on nature connectedness and well-being.
Harvey, Caroline, Sheffield, David and Richardson, Miles 2016. Children’s well-being and nature connectedness: Exploring the impact of a ‘3-good-things’ writing task on nature connectedness and well-being.
Three good things in nature: Noticing nearby nature brings sustained increases in connection with nature.
Richardson, Miles and Sheffield, David 2017. Three good things in nature: Noticing nearby nature brings sustained increases in connection with nature. PsyEcology. https://doi.org/10.1080/21711976.2016.1267136
Joy and calm: how an evolutionary functional model of affect regulation informs positive emotions in nature
Richardson, Miles, McEwan, Kirsten, Maratos, Frances A. and Sheffield, David 2016. Joy and calm: how an evolutionary functional model of affect regulation informs positive emotions in nature. Evolutionary Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0065-5
An investigation into the ways in which art is taught in an English Waldorf Steiner school
Hallam, Jenny, Egan, Susan and Kirkham, Julie 2015. An investigation into the ways in which art is taught in an English Waldorf Steiner school. Thinking Skills and Creativity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2015.07.003
Collaborative cognition: Co-creating children's artwork in an educational context
Hallam, Jenny, Lee, Helen A. N. and Das Gupta, Mani 2014. Collaborative cognition: Co-creating children's artwork in an educational context. Theory & Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354314526088
An exploration of primary school teachers’ understanding of art and the place of art in the primary school curriculum
Hallam, Jenny, Das Gupta, Mani and Lee, Helen A. N. 2008. An exploration of primary school teachers’ understanding of art and the place of art in the primary school curriculum. Curriculum Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585170802509856
Shaping children's artwork in English primary classes: insights from teacher–child interaction during art activities
Hallam, Jenny, Das Gupta, Mani and Lee, Helen A. N. 2011. Shaping children's artwork in English primary classes: insights from teacher–child interaction during art activities. International Journal of Early Years Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2011.629489
Multiple interpretations of child art–the importance of context and perspective.
Hallam, Jenny, Lee, Helen A. N. and Das Gupta, Mani 2012. Multiple interpretations of child art–the importance of context and perspective. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025793
Communicating choice: an exploration of mothers’ experiences of birth
Hallam, Jenny, Howard, Chris, Locke, Abigail and Thomas, Melissa 2016. Communicating choice: an exploration of mothers’ experiences of birth. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2015.1119260
An efficient approach to understanding and predicting the effects of multiple task characteristics on performance
Richardson, Miles 2016. An efficient approach to understanding and predicting the effects of multiple task characteristics on performance. Ergonomics. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2016.1188217
Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics
Richardson, Miles, Maspero, Marta, Golightly, David, Sheffield, David, Staples, Vicki and Lumber, Ryan 2016. Nature: a new paradigm for well-being and ergonomics. Ergonomics. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2016.1157213
30 days wild: development and evaluation of a large-scale nature engagement campaign to improve well-being
Richardson, Miles, Cormack, Adam, McRobert, Lucy and Underhill, Ralph 2016. 30 days wild: development and evaluation of a large-scale nature engagement campaign to improve well-being. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149777
Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance.
Richardson, Miles, Hunt, Thomas E. and Richardson, Cassandra 2014. Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills. https://doi.org/10.2466/22.24.PMS.119c28z8
Reflective self-attention: A more stable predictor of connection to nature than mindful attention.
Richardson, Miles and Sheffield, David 2015. Reflective self-attention: A more stable predictor of connection to nature than mindful attention. Ecopsychology. https://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2015.0010
One thousand good things in Nature: aspects of nearby Nature associated with improved connection to Nature
Richardson, Miles, Hallam, Jenny and Lumber, Ryan 2015. One thousand good things in Nature: aspects of nearby Nature associated with improved connection to Nature. Environmental Values. https://doi.org/10.3197/096327115X14384223590131
The effect of distressing imagery on attention to and persuasiveness of an anti-alcohol message: a gaze-tracking approach
Brown, Stephen L. and Richardson, Miles 2011. The effect of distressing imagery on attention to and persuasiveness of an anti-alcohol message: a gaze-tracking approach. Health Education & Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198111404411
Identifying the task characteristics that predict children's construction task performance
Richardson, Miles, Jones, Gary, Croker, Steve and Brown, Stephen L. 2011. Identifying the task characteristics that predict children's construction task performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1702
Exploring the psychological rewards of a familiar semirural landscape: connecting to local nature through a mindful approach
Richardson, Miles and Hallam, Jenny 2013. Exploring the psychological rewards of a familiar semirural landscape: connecting to local nature through a mindful approach. The Humanistic Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1080/08873267.2012.732156
Internal representations, external representations and ergonomics: towards a theoretical integration
Richardson, Miles and Ball, Linden J. 2009. Internal representations, external representations and ergonomics: towards a theoretical integration. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639220802368872
An objective examination of consumer perception of nutrition information based on healthiness ratings and eye movements
Jones, Gary and Richardson, Miles 2007. An objective examination of consumer perception of nutrition information based on healthiness ratings and eye movements. Public Health Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980007258513
Identifying the task variables that predict object assembly difficulty.
Richardson, Miles, Jones, Gary and Torrance, Mark 2006. Identifying the task variables that predict object assembly difficulty. Human factors.
Identifying the task variables that influence perceived object assembly complexity
Richardson, Miles, Jones, Gary and Torrance, Mark 2004. Identifying the task variables that influence perceived object assembly complexity. Ergonomics. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130410001686339
Identifying the task variables that affect assembly task complexity
Richardson, Miles 2005. Identifying the task variables that affect assembly task complexity. Thesis