Negations in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a heuristic–analytic conflict

Journal article


Stupple, Edward J. N. and Waterhouse, Eleanor F. 2009. Negations in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a heuristic–analytic conflict. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210902785674
AuthorsStupple, Edward J. N. and Waterhouse, Eleanor F.
Abstract

An experiment utilizing response time measures was conducted to test dominant processing strategies in syllogistic reasoning with the expanded quantifier set proposed by Roberts (2005). Through adding negations to existing quantifiers it is possible to change problem surface features without altering logical validity. Biases based on surface features such as atmosphere, matching, and the probability heuristics model (PHM; Chater & Oaksford, 1999; Wetherick & Gilhooly, 1995) would not be expected to show variance in response latencies, but participant responses should be highly sensitive to changes in the surface features of the quantifiers. In contrast, according to analytic accounts such as mental models theory and mental logic (e.g., Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991; Rips, 1994) participants should exhibit increased response times for negated premises, but not be overly impacted upon by the surface features of the conclusion. Data indicated that the dominant response strategy was based on a matching heuristic, but also provided evidence of a resource-demanding analytic procedure for dealing with double negatives. The authors propose that dual-process theories offer a stronger account of these data whereby participants employ competing heuristic and analytic strategies and fall back on a heuristic response when analytic processing fails.

KeywordsReasoning; Dual process theory; Cognition; Matching bias; Deduction
Year2009
JournalThe Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
ISSN1747-0218
1747-0226
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1080/17470210902785674
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/575927
hdl:10545/575927
Publication datesAug 2009
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Deposited25 Aug 2015, 10:50
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ContributorsUniversity of Derby
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