A Qualitative Study Comparing Mindfulness and Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing): Practitioners’ Perspectives

Journal article


Clarke, Fiona J., Kotera, Y. and McEwan, Kirsten 2021. A Qualitative Study Comparing Mindfulness and Shinrin-Yoku (Forest Bathing): Practitioners’ Perspectives. Sustainability. 13 (12), p. 6761. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126761
AuthorsClarke, Fiona J., Kotera, Y. and McEwan, Kirsten
Abstract

The boundary between mindfulness and forest bathing, two conceptually related therapies, is unclear. Accordingly, this study reports the strengths and challenges, similarities and differences, and barriers and facilitators for both. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven trained and experienced practitioners of both mindfulness and forest bathing. Reflexive thematic analysis revealed four main themes: (i) differences between the approaches; (ii) the benefits of forest bathing; (iii) biophilia through forest bathing; and (iv) inward versus outward attentional focus as a distinction between the approaches. Both practices were found to benefit well-being, but practitioners revealed key barriers to mindfulness. For vulnerable groups experiencing mental health challenges or difficulties achieving a meditative state, mindfulness may introduce well-being risks. By offering a gentler, more intuitive approach that encourages outward attentional focus, forest bathing was found to overcome this barrier. Forest bathing is suitable for all groups, but adaptations are recommended for those expressing fear or discomfort in forested environments. The findings inform how to position both approaches in practice, as a first step towards social prescribing recommendations. Wider implications concern forest bathing’s potential to impact environmental well-being. Future research must garner comparative data, involve young people, and explore the feasibility of a forest bathing social prescription.

KeywordsRenewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment; Geography, Planning and Development; Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law; compassion; environment; forest bathing; nature; mindfulness
Year2021
JournalSustainability
Journal citation13 (12), p. 6761
PublisherMDPI AG
ISSN2071-1050
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126761
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/625830
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
hdl:10545/625830
Publication dates15 Jun 2021
Publication process dates
Deposited18 Jun 2021, 14:51
Accepted08 Jun 2021
ContributorsUniversity of Birmingham and University of Derby
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Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2020. Positive psychology for mental wellbeing of uk therapeutic students: Relationships with engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00466-y
Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal
Sah, Ranjit, Sigdel, Shailendra, Ozaki, Akihiko, Kotera, Y., Bhandari, Divya, Regmi, Priyanka, Mehta, Rachana, Adhikari, Mahesh, Roy, Namrta, Dhama, Kuldeep, Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso and Dhakal, Rachana 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal. Journal of Travel Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa105
Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline, Rhodes, Christine, Williams, Alan, Chircop, James, Spink, Rachel, Rawson, Rebecca and Okere, Uche 2020. Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning.
English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]
Fido, Dean, Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2020. English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]. Concurrent Disorders Society.
Ethical judgement and intent in business school students: the role of the psyche?
Conway, E. and Kotera, Y. 2020. Ethical judgement and intent in business school students: the role of the psyche? International Journal of Ethics Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40889-020-00094-z
A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine
Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2020. A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience
Kotera, Y., Ting, Su-Hie and Neary, S. 2020. Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00547-w
Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2020. Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00309-w
The good things in urban nature: A thematic framework for optimising urban planning for nature connectedness
McEwan, Kirsten, Ferguson, Fiona J, Richardson, Miles and Cameron, Ross 2019. The good things in urban nature: A thematic framework for optimising urban planning for nature connectedness. Landscape and Urban Planning. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.103687
A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature
McEwan, Kirsten, Richardson, Miles, Sheffield, David, Ferguson, Fiona and Brindley, Paul 2019. A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183373
The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis
Pritchard, Alison, Richardson, Miles, Sheffield, David and McEwan, Kirsten 2019. The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00118-6
Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism
McEwan, Kirsten, Dandeneau, Stephane, Gilbert, Paul, Maratos, Frances, Andrew, Lucy, Chotai, Shivani and Elander, James 2019. Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism. EC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY.
Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature
McEwan, Kirsten, Richardson, Miles, Brindley, Paul, Sheffield, David, Tait, Crawford, Johnson, Steve, Sutch, Hana and Ferguson, Fiona 2019. Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature. Translational Behavioral Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibz027
Styles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority.
Basran, Jaskaran, Pires, Claudia, Matos, Marcela, McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Styles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority. Frontiers in Psychology. 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02460
Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample
Rhodes, Christine and Kotera, Y. 2019. Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720162.2019.1615585
Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Lazzari, Carlo, Kotera, Y. and Thomas, Hywel 2019. Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research. https://doi.org/10.2174/1567205016666190612160955
NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study.
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2019. NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study. Mental Health Review Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHRJ-09-2018-0030
Changing attitudes with a MOOC on dementia
Kotera, Y. and Robertshaw, D. 2019. Changing attitudes with a MOOC on dementia. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning.
Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health. British Journal of Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcz149
How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work
Kotera, Y. and Van Gordon, William 2019. How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work. in: Taylor & Francis.
Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation
Kotera, Y. and Van Gordon, William 2019. Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation. The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMHTEP-06-2018-0033
Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health
Kotera, Y. and Ting, Su-Hie 2019. Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00169-z
Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming
Kotera, Y. and Sweet, Michael 2019. Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2019.1622075
Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health. Construction Management and Economics. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446193.2019.1625417
Mental health of therapeutic students: relationships with attitudes, self-criticism, self-compassion, and caregiver identity
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Mental health of therapeutic students: relationships with attitudes, self-criticism, self-compassion, and caregiver identity. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2019.1704683
English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample
Fido, Dean, Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2019. English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00150-w
Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.5093/jwop2019a15
30 days wild: who benefits most?
Richardson, Miles, McEwan, Kirsten and Garip, Gulcan 2018. 30 days wild: who benefits most? Journal of Public Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-02-2018-0018
30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being.
Richardson, Miles and McEwan, Kirsten 2018. 30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01500
An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population.
Gilbert, Paul, Cheung, Mimi, Irons, Christopher Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2005. An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465804002048
The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia.
Martin, Y., Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Irons, Christopher Paul 2006. The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia. Aging and Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607860500311953
Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender.
Gilbert, Paul, Irons, Christopher Paul, Olsen, K., Gilbert, Jean and McEwan, Kirsten 2006. Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608305X43856
Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority.
Bellew, Rebecca, Gilbert, Paul, Mills, Alison, McEwan, Kirsten and Gale, Corinne 2006. Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority. Eating Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640260600796242
Investigating relationships between perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism, and sensitivity to put-down.
Gilbert, Paul, Durrant, R. and McEwan, Kirsten 2006. Investigating relationships between perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism, and sensitivity to put-down. Personality and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.05.004
Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Hay, J, Irons, Christopher Paul and Cheung, M. 2007. Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.508
Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women.
Gilbert, Paul, Bhundia, Rakhee, Mitra, Ranjana, McEwan, Kirsten, Irons, Christopher Paul and Sanghera, Jasvinder 2007. Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women. Mental Health Religion & Culture. https://doi.org/10.1080/13694670500415124
Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students.
Mills, Alison, Gilbert, Paul, Bellew, Rebecca, McEwan, Kirsten and Gale, Corinne 2007. Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.537
Development of a striving to avoid inferiority scale.
Gilbert, Paul, Broomhead, Claire, Irons, Christopher Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Bellew, Rebecca, Mills, Alison, Gale, Corinne and Knibb, Rebecca C. 2007. Development of a striving to avoid inferiority scale. British Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466606X157789
A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery.
Rockliff, Helen, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Lightman, Stafford and Glover, David 2008. A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation.
Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Mitra, Ranjana, Franks, Leigh, Richter, Anne and Rockliff, Helen 2008. Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism. The Journal of Positive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760801999461
The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Bellew, Rebecca, Mills, Alison and Gale, Corinne 2009. The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608308X379806
An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Mitra, Ranjana, Richter, Anne, Franks, Leigh, Mills, Alison, Bellew, Rebecca and Gale, Corinne 2009. An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation.
Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology.
Richter, Anne, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2009. Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608308X395213
Striving and competing and its relationship to self-harm in young adults.
Williams, Katie, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2009. Striving and competing and its relationship to self-harm in young adults. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2009.2.3.282
Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Irons, Christopher Paul, Bhundia, Rakhee, Christie, Rachael, Broomhead, Claire and Rockliff, Helen 2010. Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466509X479771
Effects of intranasal oxytocin on compassion focused imagery.
Rockliff, Helen, Karl, Anke, McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Jean, Matos, Marcela and Gilbert, Paul 2011. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on compassion focused imagery. Emotion. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023861
Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Matos, Marcela and Rivis, Amanda 2011. Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608310X526511
The relationship between self-concealment and disclosure, early experiences, attachement, and social comparison.
Cruddas, Sarah, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2012. The relationship between self-concealment and disclosure, early experiences, attachement, and social comparison. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2012.5.1.28
An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology.
McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Paul and Duarte, Joana 2011. An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.2011.02010.x
An exploration of group-based compassion focused therapy for a heterogeneous range of clients presenting to a community mental health team.
Judge, Lorna, Cleghorn, Ailish, McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2012. An exploration of group-based compassion focused therapy for a heterogeneous range of clients presenting to a community mental health team. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2012.5.4.420
Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Gibbons, L., Duarte, Joana and Matos, Marcela 2011. Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.2011.02046.x
Optimising mobility outcome measures in Huntington's disease.
Busse, Monica, Quinn, Lori, Khalil, Hanan and McEwan, Kirsten 2014. Optimising mobility outcome measures in Huntington's disease. Journal of Huntington's Disease. https://doi.org/10.3233/JHD-140091
M11 A randomised controlled feasibility trial of a physical activity behaviour change intervention compared to social interaction in huntington’s disease.
Busse, Monica, Quinn, Lori, Drew, Cheney, Kelson, Mark, Trubey, Rob, McEwan, Kirsten, Jones, Carys, Townson, Julia, Dawes, Helen, Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon, Rosser, Anne and Hood, Kerenza 2016. M11 A randomised controlled feasibility trial of a physical activity behaviour change intervention compared to social interaction in huntington’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-314597.296
Physical activity self-management and coaching compared to social interaction in huntington disease: results from the ENGAGE-HD randomized, controlled, pilot feasibility trial.
Busse, Monica, Quinn, Lori, Drew, Cheney, Kelson, Mark, Trubey, Rob, McEwan, Kirsten, Jones, Carys, Townson, Julia, Dawes, Helen, Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon, Rosser, Anne and Hood, Kerenza 2017. Physical activity self-management and coaching compared to social interaction in huntington disease: results from the ENGAGE-HD randomized, controlled, pilot feasibility trial. Physical Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzx031
Assessing the medium-term impact of a home-visiting programme on child maltreatment in England: protocol for a routine data linkage study.
Ludd-Widger, Fiona V., Cannings-John, Rebecca, Channon, Sue, Fitzsimmons, Deborah, Hood, Kerenza, Jones, Kerina H., Kemp, Alison, Kenkre, Joyce, Longo, Mirella, McEwan, Kirsten, Moody, Gwenllian, Owen-Jones, Eleri, Sanders, Julia, Segrott, Jeremy and Robling, Mike 2017. Assessing the medium-term impact of a home-visiting programme on child maltreatment in England: protocol for a routine data linkage study. BMJ Open. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015728
Availability of breastfeeding peer-support in the UK: a cross-sectional survey.
Grant, Aimee, McEwan, Kirsten, Tedstone, Sally, Greene, Giles, Copeland, Lauren, Hunter, Billie, Sanders, Julia, Phillips, Rhiannon, Brown, Amy, Robling, Mike and Paranjothy, Shantini 2017. Availability of breastfeeding peer-support in the UK: a cross-sectional survey. Maternal and Child Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12476
Controlled antenatal thyroid screening II: Effect of treating maternal suboptimal thyroid function on child cognition.
Hales, Charlotte, Taylor, Peter N., Channon, Sue, Paradice, Ruth, McEwan, Kirsten, Zhang, Lei, Gyedu, Michael, Bakhsh, Ameen, Okosieme, Onyebuchi, Muller, Ilaria, Draman, Mohd S., Gregory, John W., Dayan, Colin, Lazarus, John H., Rees, D Aled and Ludgate, Marian 2018. Controlled antenatal thyroid screening II: Effect of treating maternal suboptimal thyroid function on child cognition. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-02378
Pragmatic Randomised controlled trial of a trauma-focused guided self-help Programme versus InDividual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (RAPID): trial protocol.
Nollett, Claire, Lewis, Catrin, Kitchiner, Neil, Roberts, Neil, Addison, Katy, Brookes-Howell, Lucy, Cosgrove, Sarah, Cullen, Katherine, Ehlers, Anke, Heke, Sarah, Kelson, Mark, Lovell, Karina, Madden, Kim, McEwan, Kirsten, McNamara, Rachel, Philips, Ceri, Pickles, Timothy, Simon, Natalie and Bisson, Jonathan 2018. Pragmatic Randomised controlled trial of a trauma-focused guided self-help Programme versus InDividual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (RAPID): trial protocol. BMC Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1665-3
Evaluation of a web-based self-compassion intervention to reduce student assessment anxiety.
McEwan, Kirsten, Elander, James and Gilbert, Paul 2018. Evaluation of a web-based self-compassion intervention to reduce student assessment anxiety. Interdisciplinary Education and Psychology.
Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca, Baião, Rita and Palmeira, Lara 2013. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12037
A descriptive study of feelings of arrested escape (entrapment) and arrested anger in people presenting to an emergency department following an episode of self-harm.
Clarke, Martin, McEwan, Kirsten, Ness, Jennifer, Waters, Keith, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul 2016. A descriptive study of feelings of arrested escape (entrapment) and arrested anger in people presenting to an emergency department following an episode of self-harm. Frontiers in Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00155
Mental wellbeing of caring profession students: relationship with caregiver identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Van Gordon, William 2018. Mental wellbeing of caring profession students: relationship with caregiver identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation. Mindfulness & Compassion.
The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2018. The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. International Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling.
Mental health attitudes, self-criticism, compassion and role identity among UK social work students.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline Catherine and Sheffield, David 2018. Mental health attitudes, self-criticism, compassion and role identity among UK social work students. The British Journal Of Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcy072
Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health.
Kotera, Y., Conway, E. and Van Gordon, William 2018. Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-0034-2
The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes.
Kotera, Y., Sheffield, David and Van Gordon, William 2018. The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes. Human Resource Development Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21334
Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2018. Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9874-z
Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers.
Kotera, Y., Gilbert, Paul, Asano, Kenichi, Ishimura, Ikuo and Sheffield, David 2018. Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12355
Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I.
Van Gordon, William, Shonin, Edo, Diouri, Sofiane, Garcia-Campayo, Javier, Kotera, Y. and Griffiths, Mark D. 2018. Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.45
Mental health of UK university business students: Relationship with shame, motivation and self-compassion
Kotera, Y., Conway, E. and Van Gordon, William 2018. Mental health of UK university business students: Relationship with shame, motivation and self-compassion. Journal of Education for Business. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2018.1496898
Exploring emptiness and its effects on non-attachment, mystical experiences, and psycho-spiritual wellbeing: a quantitative and qualitative study of advanced meditators.
Van Gordon, William, Shonin, Edo, Dunn, Thomas J., Sapthiang, Supakyada, Kotera, Y., Garcia-Campayo, Javier and Sheffield, David 2018. Exploring emptiness and its effects on non-attachment, mystical experiences, and psycho-spiritual wellbeing: a quantitative and qualitative study of advanced meditators. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2018.12.003
Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey.
Pates, John, Kotera, Y. and Clancy, David 2018. Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey. International Journal of Work Innovation. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWI.2017.10012540
A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population
McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2015. A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12078
Compassion motivations: Distinguishing submissive compassion from genuine compassion and its association with shame, submissive behavior, depression, anxiety and stress
Catarino, Francisca, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Baião, Rita 2014. Compassion motivations: Distinguishing submissive compassion from genuine compassion and its association with shame, submissive behavior, depression, anxiety and stress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2014.33.5.399
Forms of self-criticising/attacking & self-reassuring scale: Psychometric properties and normative study
Baião, Rita, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Carvalho, Sérgio 2014. Forms of self-criticising/attacking & self-reassuring scale: Psychometric properties and normative study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12049
Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca and Baião, Rita 2014. Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.S2-004
Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca and Baião, Rita 2014. Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.S2-003
A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants
Kotera, Y. 2017. A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2017.1320781
The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version.
Asano, Kenichi, Tsuchiya, Masao, Ishimura, Ikuo, Lin, Shuzhen, Matsumoto, Yuki, Miyata, Haruko, Kotera, Y., Shimizu, Eiji and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185574
Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2017. Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. Global Academic Excellence.
Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2017. Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study. Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling. https://doi.org/10.20856/jnicec.3808
The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics
Maratos, Frances A., Duarte, Joana, Barnes, Christopher, McEwan, Kirsten, Sheffield, David and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics. Psychiatry Research. 250, pp. 221-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.066
Joy and calm: how an evolutionary functional model of affect regulation informs positive emotions in nature
Richardson, Miles, McEwan, Kirsten, Maratos, Frances A. and Sheffield, David 2016. Joy and calm: how an evolutionary functional model of affect regulation informs positive emotions in nature. Evolutionary Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0065-5
Do therapeutic imagery practices affect physiological and emotional indicators of threat in high self-critics?
Duarte, Joana, McEwan, Kirsten, Barnes, Christopher, Gilbert, Paul and Maratos, Frances A. 2015. Do therapeutic imagery practices affect physiological and emotional indicators of threat in high self-critics? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12043
An exploration of the processing of compassionate and critical faces
McEwan, Kirsten 2012. An exploration of the processing of compassionate and critical faces. Thesis
Facial expressions depicting compassionate and critical emotions: the development and validation of a new emotional face stimulus set
McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Paul, Dandeneau, Stephane, Lipka, Sigrid, Maratos, Frances A., Paterson, Kevin B. and Baldwin, Mark 2014. Facial expressions depicting compassionate and critical emotions: the development and validation of a new emotional face stimulus set. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088783