A pragmatic controlled trial of forest bathing compared with compassionate mind training in the UK: impacts on self- reported wellbeing and heart rate variability

Journal article


McEwan, Kirsten, Giles, David, Clarke, Fiona, Kotera, Y., Evans, Gary, Terebenina, Olga, Minou, Lina, Teeling, Claire, Basran, Jaskaran, Wood, Wendy and Weil, Dominic 2021. A pragmatic controlled trial of forest bathing compared with compassionate mind training in the UK: impacts on self- reported wellbeing and heart rate variability. Sustainability. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031380
AuthorsMcEwan, Kirsten, Giles, David, Clarke, Fiona, Kotera, Y., Evans, Gary, Terebenina, Olga, Minou, Lina, Teeling, Claire, Basran, Jaskaran, Wood, Wendy and Weil, Dominic
Abstract

Forest Bathing, where individuals use mindfulness to engage with nature, has been re-ported to increase heart rate variability and benefit wellbeing. To date, most Forest Bathing studies have been conducted in Asia. Accordingly, this paper reports the first pragmatic controlled trial of Forest Bathing in the United Kingdom, comparing Forest Bathing with a control comprising an es-tablished wellbeing intervention also known to increase heart rate variability called Compassion-ate Mind Training. Sixty-one university staff and students (50 females, 11 males) were allocated to (i) Forest Bathing, (ii) Compassionate Mind Training or (iii) Forest Bathing combined with Com-passionate Mind Training. Wellbeing and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, post-intervention and three-months follow-up. There were improvements in positive emotions, mood disturbance, rumination, nature connection and compassion and 57% of participants showed an increase in heart rate variability (RMSSD -parasympathetic activity). There were no significant differences between conditions, showing that Forest Bathing had an equivalence with an established wellbeing intervention. The findings will help healthcare providers and policy makers to understand the effects of Forest Bathing and implement it as a feasible social prescription to improve wellbeing. Future research needs to involve clinical populations and to assess the effects of Forest Bathing in a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) .

KeywordsCompassionate Mind Training; Forest Bathing; heart rate variability
Year2021
JournalSustainability
PublisherMDPI
ISSN2071-1050
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031380
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/625571
hdl:10545/625571
Publication dates28 Jan 2021
Publication process dates
Deposited01 Feb 2021, 10:43
Accepted22 Jan 2021
ContributorsUniversity of Derby, Lattice Coaching and Training, Chesterfield, University of Birmingham, The Forest Bathing Institute, London and Grow Outside CIC, Cambridge
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Edwards, Ann-Marie and Kotera, Y. 2020. Mental health in the UK police force: A qualitative investigation into the stigma with mental illness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00214-x
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Kotera, Y. and Maughan, Geraldine 2020. Mental health of Irish students: Self-criticism as a complete mediator in mental health attitudes and caregiver identity. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Study protocol: a pilot study investigating mental health in the UK police force
Edwards, Ann-Marie and Kotera, Y. 2020. Study protocol: a pilot study investigating mental health in the UK police force. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Kotera, Y., Richardson, Miles and Sheffield, David 2020. Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00363-4
The development of the Japanese version of the compassionate engagement and action scales
Asano, Kenichi, Kotera, Y., Tsuchiya, Masao, Ishimura, Ikuo, Lin, Shuzhen, Matsumoto, Yuki, Matos, Marcela, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul 2020. The development of the Japanese version of the compassionate engagement and action scales. PLos ONE. 15 (4), p. e0230875. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230875
Underestimation of COVID-19 cases in Japan: an analysis of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 among 47 prefectures in Japan
Sawano, Toyoaki, Kotera, Y., Ozaki, Akihiko, Murayama, Anju, Tanimoto, Tetsuya, Sah, Ranjit and Wang, Jiwei 2020. Underestimation of COVID-19 cases in Japan: an analysis of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 among 47 prefectures in Japan. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa209
Positive psychology for mental wellbeing of uk therapeutic students: Relationships with engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2020. Positive psychology for mental wellbeing of uk therapeutic students: Relationships with engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00466-y
Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal
Sah, Ranjit, Sigdel, Shailendra, Ozaki, Akihiko, Kotera, Y., Bhandari, Divya, Regmi, Priyanka, Mehta, Rachana, Adhikari, Mahesh, Roy, Namrta, Dhama, Kuldeep, Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso and Dhakal, Rachana 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal. Journal of Travel Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa105
Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline, Rhodes, Christine, Williams, Alan, Chircop, James, Spink, Rachel, Rawson, Rebecca and Okere, Uche 2020. Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning.
English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]
Fido, Dean, Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2020. English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]. Concurrent Disorders Society.
Exploring the international utility of progressing compassionate mind training in school settings: a comparison of implementation effectiveness of the same curricula in the UK and Portugal
Maratos, Frances A., Matos, Marcela, Alberquerque, Isabel, Wood, Wendy, Palmeira, Lara, Cuna, Marina, Lima, Margarida and Gilbert, Paul 2020. Exploring the international utility of progressing compassionate mind training in school settings: a comparison of implementation effectiveness of the same curricula in the UK and Portugal. The Psychology of Education Review.
Ethical judgement and intent in business school students: the role of the psyche?
Conway, E. and Kotera, Y. 2020. Ethical judgement and intent in business school students: the role of the psyche? International Journal of Ethics Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40889-020-00094-z
A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine
Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2020. A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience
Kotera, Y., Ting, Su-Hie and Neary, S. 2020. Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00547-w
Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2020. Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00309-w
The good things in urban nature: A thematic framework for optimising urban planning for nature connectedness
McEwan, Kirsten, Ferguson, Fiona J, Richardson, Miles and Cameron, Ross 2019. The good things in urban nature: A thematic framework for optimising urban planning for nature connectedness. Landscape and Urban Planning. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.103687
Using figured worlds to explore parents' attitudes and influences for choosing the content of primary school packed lunches
Jackson, Jessica, Giles, David and Gerrard, Clarabelle 2019. Using figured worlds to explore parents' attitudes and influences for choosing the content of primary school packed lunches. MAG Online Library. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjsn.2019.14.7.335
Differences in the semantics of prosocial words: an exploration of compassion and kindness
Gilbert, Paul, Basran, Jaskaran, MacArthur, Michael and Kirby, James N. 2019. Differences in the semantics of prosocial words: an exploration of compassion and kindness. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01191-x
A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature
McEwan, Kirsten, Richardson, Miles, Sheffield, David, Ferguson, Fiona and Brindley, Paul 2019. A smartphone app for improving mental health through connecting with urban nature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183373
Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.
Minou, Lina 2017. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts. Wellcome Open Research. https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.10415.2
Multiple group IRT measurement invariance analysis of the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale in thirteen international samples
Halamová, Júlia, Kanovský, Martin, Gilbert, Paul, Troop, Nicholas, Zuroff, David C., Petrocchi, Nicola, Hermanto, Nicola, Krieger, Tobias, Kirby, James, Asano, Kenichi, Matos, Marcela, Yu, FuYa, Sommers-Spijkerman, Marion, Shahar, Ben, Basran, Jaskaran and Kupeli, Nuriye 2019. Multiple group IRT measurement invariance analysis of the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale in thirteen international samples. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-019-00319-1
The evolution of prosocial and antisocial competitive behaviour and the emergence of prosocial and antisocial leadership styles
Gilbert, Paul and Basran, Jaskaran 2019. The evolution of prosocial and antisocial competitive behaviour and the emergence of prosocial and antisocial leadership styles. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00610
The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis
Pritchard, Alison, Richardson, Miles, Sheffield, David and McEwan, Kirsten 2019. The relationship between nature connectedness and eudaimonic well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00118-6
Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism
McEwan, Kirsten, Dandeneau, Stephane, Gilbert, Paul, Maratos, Frances, Andrew, Lucy, Chotai, Shivani and Elander, James 2019. Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism. EC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY.
Imagining one's compassionate self and coping with life difficulties
Gilbert, Paul and Basran, Jaskaran 2018. Imagining one's compassionate self and coping with life difficulties. EC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY.
Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature
McEwan, Kirsten, Richardson, Miles, Brindley, Paul, Sheffield, David, Tait, Crawford, Johnson, Steve, Sutch, Hana and Ferguson, Fiona 2019. Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature. Translational Behavioral Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibz027
The determination of finger flexor critical force in rock climbers
Giles, David, Chidley, Joe;, Taylor, Nicola, Torr, Ollie, Hadley, Josh, Randall, Tom and Fryer, Simon 2019. The determination of finger flexor critical force in rock climbers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.
Styles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority.
Basran, Jaskaran, Pires, Claudia, Matos, Marcela, McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Styles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority. Frontiers in Psychology. 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02460
The factor structure of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale in thirteen distinct populations.
Halamová, Júlia, Kanovský, Martin, Gilbert, Paul, Troop, Nicholas A., Zuroff, David C., Hermanto, Nicola, Petrocchi, Nicola, Sommers-Spijkerman, Marion, Kirby, James N., Shahar, Ben, Krieger, Tobias, Matos, Marcela, Asano, Kenichi, Yu, FuYa, Basran, Jaskaran and Kupeli, Nuriye 2018. The factor structure of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale in thirteen distinct populations. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 40 (4), pp. 736-751. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-018-9686-2
Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample
Rhodes, Christine and Kotera, Y. 2019. Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720162.2019.1615585
Effect of adding a compassion-focused intervention on emotion, eating and weight outcomes in a commercial weight management programme
Duarte, Cristiana, Gilbert, Paul, Stalker, C., Catarino, Francisca, Basran, Jaskaran, Scott, Sarah, Horgan, Graham and Stubbs, R James 2019. Effect of adding a compassion-focused intervention on emotion, eating and weight outcomes in a commercial weight management programme. Journal of Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105319890019
Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Lazzari, Carlo, Kotera, Y. and Thomas, Hywel 2019. Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research. https://doi.org/10.2174/1567205016666190612160955
NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study.
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2019. NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study. Mental Health Review Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHRJ-09-2018-0030
Changing attitudes with a MOOC on dementia
Kotera, Y. and Robertshaw, D. 2019. Changing attitudes with a MOOC on dementia. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning.
Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health. British Journal of Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcz149
How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work
Kotera, Y. and Van Gordon, William 2019. How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work. in: Taylor & Francis.
Evaluation of a compassionate mind training intervention with school teachers and support staff
Maratos, Frances, Montague, Jane, Ashra, Hajra, Welford, Mary, Wood, Wendy, Barnes, Christopher, Sheffield, David and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Evaluation of a compassionate mind training intervention with school teachers and support staff. Mindfulness. 10, p. 2245–2258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01185-9
Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation
Kotera, Y. and Van Gordon, William 2019. Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation. The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMHTEP-06-2018-0033
Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health
Kotera, Y. and Ting, Su-Hie 2019. Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00169-z
Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming
Kotera, Y. and Sweet, Michael 2019. Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2019.1622075
Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health. Construction Management and Economics. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446193.2019.1625417
Mental health of therapeutic students: relationships with attitudes, self-criticism, self-compassion, and caregiver identity
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Mental health of therapeutic students: relationships with attitudes, self-criticism, self-compassion, and caregiver identity. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2019.1704683
English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample
Fido, Dean, Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2019. English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00150-w
Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.5093/jwop2019a15
30 days wild: who benefits most?
Richardson, Miles, McEwan, Kirsten and Garip, Gulcan 2018. 30 days wild: who benefits most? Journal of Public Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMH-02-2018-0018
30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being.
Richardson, Miles and McEwan, Kirsten 2018. 30 days wild and the relationships between engagement with nature’s beauty, nature connectedness and well-being. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01500
An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population.
Gilbert, Paul, Cheung, Mimi, Irons, Christopher Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2005. An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465804002048
The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia.
Martin, Y., Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Irons, Christopher Paul 2006. The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia. Aging and Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607860500311953
Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender.
Gilbert, Paul, Irons, Christopher Paul, Olsen, K., Gilbert, Jean and McEwan, Kirsten 2006. Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608305X43856
Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority.
Bellew, Rebecca, Gilbert, Paul, Mills, Alison, McEwan, Kirsten and Gale, Corinne 2006. Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority. Eating Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640260600796242
Investigating relationships between perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism, and sensitivity to put-down.
Gilbert, Paul, Durrant, R. and McEwan, Kirsten 2006. Investigating relationships between perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism, and sensitivity to put-down. Personality and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.05.004
Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Hay, J, Irons, Christopher Paul and Cheung, M. 2007. Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.508
Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women.
Gilbert, Paul, Bhundia, Rakhee, Mitra, Ranjana, McEwan, Kirsten, Irons, Christopher Paul and Sanghera, Jasvinder 2007. Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women. Mental Health Religion & Culture. https://doi.org/10.1080/13694670500415124
Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students.
Mills, Alison, Gilbert, Paul, Bellew, Rebecca, McEwan, Kirsten and Gale, Corinne 2007. Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.537
Development of a striving to avoid inferiority scale.
Gilbert, Paul, Broomhead, Claire, Irons, Christopher Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Bellew, Rebecca, Mills, Alison, Gale, Corinne and Knibb, Rebecca C. 2007. Development of a striving to avoid inferiority scale. British Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466606X157789
A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery.
Rockliff, Helen, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Lightman, Stafford and Glover, David 2008. A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation.
Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Mitra, Ranjana, Franks, Leigh, Richter, Anne and Rockliff, Helen 2008. Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism. The Journal of Positive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760801999461
The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Bellew, Rebecca, Mills, Alison and Gale, Corinne 2009. The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608308X379806
An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Mitra, Ranjana, Richter, Anne, Franks, Leigh, Mills, Alison, Bellew, Rebecca and Gale, Corinne 2009. An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation.
Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology.
Richter, Anne, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2009. Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608308X395213
Striving and competing and its relationship to self-harm in young adults.
Williams, Katie, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2009. Striving and competing and its relationship to self-harm in young adults. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2009.2.3.282
Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Irons, Christopher Paul, Bhundia, Rakhee, Christie, Rachael, Broomhead, Claire and Rockliff, Helen 2010. Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466509X479771
Effects of intranasal oxytocin on compassion focused imagery.
Rockliff, Helen, Karl, Anke, McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Jean, Matos, Marcela and Gilbert, Paul 2011. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on compassion focused imagery. Emotion. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023861
Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Matos, Marcela and Rivis, Amanda 2011. Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608310X526511
The relationship between self-concealment and disclosure, early experiences, attachement, and social comparison.
Cruddas, Sarah, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2012. The relationship between self-concealment and disclosure, early experiences, attachement, and social comparison. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2012.5.1.28
An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology.
McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Paul and Duarte, Joana 2011. An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.2011.02010.x
An exploration of group-based compassion focused therapy for a heterogeneous range of clients presenting to a community mental health team.
Judge, Lorna, Cleghorn, Ailish, McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2012. An exploration of group-based compassion focused therapy for a heterogeneous range of clients presenting to a community mental health team. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2012.5.4.420
Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Gibbons, L., Duarte, Joana and Matos, Marcela 2011. Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.2011.02046.x
Optimising mobility outcome measures in Huntington's disease.
Busse, Monica, Quinn, Lori, Khalil, Hanan and McEwan, Kirsten 2014. Optimising mobility outcome measures in Huntington's disease. Journal of Huntington's Disease. https://doi.org/10.3233/JHD-140091
M11 A randomised controlled feasibility trial of a physical activity behaviour change intervention compared to social interaction in huntington’s disease.
Busse, Monica, Quinn, Lori, Drew, Cheney, Kelson, Mark, Trubey, Rob, McEwan, Kirsten, Jones, Carys, Townson, Julia, Dawes, Helen, Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon, Rosser, Anne and Hood, Kerenza 2016. M11 A randomised controlled feasibility trial of a physical activity behaviour change intervention compared to social interaction in huntington’s disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-314597.296
Physical activity self-management and coaching compared to social interaction in huntington disease: results from the ENGAGE-HD randomized, controlled, pilot feasibility trial.
Busse, Monica, Quinn, Lori, Drew, Cheney, Kelson, Mark, Trubey, Rob, McEwan, Kirsten, Jones, Carys, Townson, Julia, Dawes, Helen, Tudor-Edwards, Rhiannon, Rosser, Anne and Hood, Kerenza 2017. Physical activity self-management and coaching compared to social interaction in huntington disease: results from the ENGAGE-HD randomized, controlled, pilot feasibility trial. Physical Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzx031
Assessing the medium-term impact of a home-visiting programme on child maltreatment in England: protocol for a routine data linkage study.
Ludd-Widger, Fiona V., Cannings-John, Rebecca, Channon, Sue, Fitzsimmons, Deborah, Hood, Kerenza, Jones, Kerina H., Kemp, Alison, Kenkre, Joyce, Longo, Mirella, McEwan, Kirsten, Moody, Gwenllian, Owen-Jones, Eleri, Sanders, Julia, Segrott, Jeremy and Robling, Mike 2017. Assessing the medium-term impact of a home-visiting programme on child maltreatment in England: protocol for a routine data linkage study. BMJ Open. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015728
Availability of breastfeeding peer-support in the UK: a cross-sectional survey.
Grant, Aimee, McEwan, Kirsten, Tedstone, Sally, Greene, Giles, Copeland, Lauren, Hunter, Billie, Sanders, Julia, Phillips, Rhiannon, Brown, Amy, Robling, Mike and Paranjothy, Shantini 2017. Availability of breastfeeding peer-support in the UK: a cross-sectional survey. Maternal and Child Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12476
Controlled antenatal thyroid screening II: Effect of treating maternal suboptimal thyroid function on child cognition.
Hales, Charlotte, Taylor, Peter N., Channon, Sue, Paradice, Ruth, McEwan, Kirsten, Zhang, Lei, Gyedu, Michael, Bakhsh, Ameen, Okosieme, Onyebuchi, Muller, Ilaria, Draman, Mohd S., Gregory, John W., Dayan, Colin, Lazarus, John H., Rees, D Aled and Ludgate, Marian 2018. Controlled antenatal thyroid screening II: Effect of treating maternal suboptimal thyroid function on child cognition. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-02378
Pragmatic Randomised controlled trial of a trauma-focused guided self-help Programme versus InDividual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (RAPID): trial protocol.
Nollett, Claire, Lewis, Catrin, Kitchiner, Neil, Roberts, Neil, Addison, Katy, Brookes-Howell, Lucy, Cosgrove, Sarah, Cullen, Katherine, Ehlers, Anke, Heke, Sarah, Kelson, Mark, Lovell, Karina, Madden, Kim, McEwan, Kirsten, McNamara, Rachel, Philips, Ceri, Pickles, Timothy, Simon, Natalie and Bisson, Jonathan 2018. Pragmatic Randomised controlled trial of a trauma-focused guided self-help Programme versus InDividual trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (RAPID): trial protocol. BMC Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1665-3
Evaluating the role of patient facing pharmacists in a GP practice setting.
Lewis, Rachel and Giles, David 2018. Evaluating the role of patient facing pharmacists in a GP practice setting.
Evaluation of a web-based self-compassion intervention to reduce student assessment anxiety.
McEwan, Kirsten, Elander, James and Gilbert, Paul 2018. Evaluation of a web-based self-compassion intervention to reduce student assessment anxiety. Interdisciplinary Education and Psychology.
Oral nutritional supplements in care homes and the community: Nutrition review and staff education.
Giles, David, Lewis, Rachel and Ward, Derek 2018. Oral nutritional supplements in care homes and the community: Nutrition review and staff education. University of Derby.
Physical activity and sport evaluation toolkit.
Giles, David 2018. Physical activity and sport evaluation toolkit. County Sports Partnerships Network.
Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca, Baião, Rita and Palmeira, Lara 2013. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12037
A descriptive study of feelings of arrested escape (entrapment) and arrested anger in people presenting to an emergency department following an episode of self-harm.
Clarke, Martin, McEwan, Kirsten, Ness, Jennifer, Waters, Keith, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul 2016. A descriptive study of feelings of arrested escape (entrapment) and arrested anger in people presenting to an emergency department following an episode of self-harm. Frontiers in Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00155
Measuring competitive self-focus perspective taking, submissive compassion and compassion goals.
Gilbert, Paul, Catarino, Francisca, Sousa, Joana, Ceresatto, Laura, Moore, Rosalind and Basran, Jaskaran 2017. Measuring competitive self-focus perspective taking, submissive compassion and compassion goals. Journal of Compassionate Health Care. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40639-017-0034-2
Mental wellbeing of caring profession students: relationship with caregiver identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Van Gordon, William 2018. Mental wellbeing of caring profession students: relationship with caregiver identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation. Mindfulness & Compassion.
The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2018. The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. International Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling.
Mental health attitudes, self-criticism, compassion and role identity among UK social work students.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline Catherine and Sheffield, David 2018. Mental health attitudes, self-criticism, compassion and role identity among UK social work students. The British Journal Of Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcy072
Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health.
Kotera, Y., Conway, E. and Van Gordon, William 2018. Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-0034-2
The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes.
Kotera, Y., Sheffield, David and Van Gordon, William 2018. The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes. Human Resource Development Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21334
Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2018. Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9874-z
Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers.
Kotera, Y., Gilbert, Paul, Asano, Kenichi, Ishimura, Ikuo and Sheffield, David 2018. Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12355
Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I.
Van Gordon, William, Shonin, Edo, Diouri, Sofiane, Garcia-Campayo, Javier, Kotera, Y. and Griffiths, Mark D. 2018. Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.45
Mental health of UK university business students: Relationship with shame, motivation and self-compassion
Kotera, Y., Conway, E. and Van Gordon, William 2018. Mental health of UK university business students: Relationship with shame, motivation and self-compassion. Journal of Education for Business. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2018.1496898
Exploring emptiness and its effects on non-attachment, mystical experiences, and psycho-spiritual wellbeing: a quantitative and qualitative study of advanced meditators.
Van Gordon, William, Shonin, Edo, Dunn, Thomas J., Sapthiang, Supakyada, Kotera, Y., Garcia-Campayo, Javier and Sheffield, David 2018. Exploring emptiness and its effects on non-attachment, mystical experiences, and psycho-spiritual wellbeing: a quantitative and qualitative study of advanced meditators. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2018.12.003
Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey.
Pates, John, Kotera, Y. and Clancy, David 2018. Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey. International Journal of Work Innovation. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWI.2017.10012540
Using behavioural insights to improve the healthiness of children’s packed lunches.
Jackson, Jessica, Ward, Derek, Giles, David, Bunten, Amanda, Howell-Jones, Rebecca and Burgess-Allen, Jilla 2017. Using behavioural insights to improve the healthiness of children’s packed lunches. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckx187.316
Differences in forearm strength, endurance, and hemodynamic kinetics between male boulderers and lead rock climbers
Fryer, Simon, Stone, Keeron, Sveen, Joakim, Dickson, Tabitha, España-Romero, Vanesa, Giles, David, Baláš, Jiří, Stoner, Lee and Draper, Nick 2017. Differences in forearm strength, endurance, and hemodynamic kinetics between male boulderers and lead rock climbers. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1353135
Psychophysiological and emotional antecedents of climbing performance
Giles, David 2017. Psychophysiological and emotional antecedents of climbing performance. Thesis
The role and value of medicines management work packages 1 & 2
Giles, David, Lewis, Rachel and Ward, Derek 2017. The role and value of medicines management work packages 1 & 2. Southern Derbyshire County Council.
Hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory predictors of sport rock climbing performance
Fryer, Simon, Giles, David, Palomino, Inmaculada Garrido, Puerta, Alejandro de la O and Romero, Vanesa España 2018. Hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory predictors of sport rock climbing performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001860
Shoulder muscle activity in sport climbing in naturally chosen and corrected shoulder positions
Baláš, Jiří, Duchačová, Alena, Giles, David, Kotalíková, Kateřina, Pánek, David and Draper, Nick 2017. Shoulder muscle activity in sport climbing in naturally chosen and corrected shoulder positions. The Open Sports Sciences Journal. https://doi.org/10.2174/1875399X01710010107
Psychological and physiological effects of compassionate mind training: A pilot randomised controlled study
Matos, Marcela, Duarte, Cristiana, Duarte, Joana, Pinto-Gouveia, José, Petrocchi, Nicola, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul 2017. Psychological and physiological effects of compassionate mind training: A pilot randomised controlled study. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0745-7
A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population
McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2015. A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12078
Compassion motivations: Distinguishing submissive compassion from genuine compassion and its association with shame, submissive behavior, depression, anxiety and stress
Catarino, Francisca, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Baião, Rita 2014. Compassion motivations: Distinguishing submissive compassion from genuine compassion and its association with shame, submissive behavior, depression, anxiety and stress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2014.33.5.399
Forms of self-criticising/attacking & self-reassuring scale: Psychometric properties and normative study
Baião, Rita, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Carvalho, Sérgio 2014. Forms of self-criticising/attacking & self-reassuring scale: Psychometric properties and normative study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12049
Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca and Baião, Rita 2014. Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.S2-004
Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca and Baião, Rita 2014. Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.S2-003
The development of compassionate engagement and action scales for self and others
Gilbert, Paul, Catarino, Francisca, Duarte, Cristiana, Matos, Marcela, Kolts, Russell, Stubbs, James, Ceresatto, Laura, Duarte, Joana, Pinto-Gouveia, José and Basran, Jaskaran 2017. The development of compassionate engagement and action scales for self and others. Journal of Compassionate Health Care. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40639-017-0033-3
Heart rate variability during exercise: A comparison of artefact correction methods
Giles, David and Draper, Nick 2018. Heart rate variability during exercise: A comparison of artefact correction methods. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001800
A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants
Kotera, Y. 2017. A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2017.1320781
The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version.
Asano, Kenichi, Tsuchiya, Masao, Ishimura, Ikuo, Lin, Shuzhen, Matsumoto, Yuki, Miyata, Haruko, Kotera, Y., Shimizu, Eiji and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185574
Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2017. Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. Global Academic Excellence.
Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2017. Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study. Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling. https://doi.org/10.20856/jnicec.3808
The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics
Maratos, Frances A., Duarte, Joana, Barnes, Christopher, McEwan, Kirsten, Sheffield, David and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics. Psychiatry Research. 250, pp. 221-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.066
Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers
Baláš, Jiří, Michailov, Michail, Giles, David, Kodejška, Jan, Panáčková, Michaela and Fryer, Simon 2015. Active recovery of the finger flexors enhances intermittent handgrip performance in rock climbers. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2015.1119198
Physiological demands of indoor wall climbing in children
Panáčková, Michaela, Baláš, Jiří, Bunc, Václav and Giles, David 2015. Physiological demands of indoor wall climbing in children. Sports Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/19346182.2014.968251
Comparative grading scales, statistical analyses, climber descriptors and ability grouping: International Rock Climbing Research Association position statement
Draper, Nick, Giles, David, Schöffl, Volker, Konstantin Fuss, Franz, Watts, Phillip, Wolf, Peter, Baláš, Jiří, España-Romero, Vanesa, Blunt Gonzalez, Gina, Fryer, Simon, Fanchini, Maurizio, Vigouroux, Laurent, Seifert, Ludovic, Donath, Lars, Spoerri, Manuel, Bonetti, Kelios, Phillips, Kevin, Stöcker, Urs, Bourassa-Moreau, Felix, Garrido, Inmaculada, Drum, Scott, Beekmeyer, Stuart, Ziltener, Jean-Luc, Taylor, Nicola, Beeretz, Ina, Mally, Franziska, Mithat Amca, Arif, Linhart, Caroline and Abreu, Edgardo 2016. Comparative grading scales, statistical analyses, climber descriptors and ability grouping: International Rock Climbing Research Association position statement. Sports Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/19346182.2015.1107081
Alterations in autonomic cardiac modulation in response to normobaric hypoxia
Giles, David, Kelly, John and Draper, Nick 2016. Alterations in autonomic cardiac modulation in response to normobaric hypoxia. European Journal of Sport Science. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2016.1207708
Differences in oxygenation kinetics between the dominant and non-dominant flexor digitorum profundus in rock climbers
Giles, David, España-Romero, Vanesa, Garrido, Inmaculada, de la O Puerta, Alex, Stone, Keeron and Fryer, Simon 2016. Differences in oxygenation kinetics between the dominant and non-dominant flexor digitorum profundus in rock climbers. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2015-0651
Forearm muscle oxidative capacity index predicts sport rock-climbing performance
Fryer, Simon, Stoner, Lee, Stone, Keeron, Giles, David, Sveen, Joakim, Garrido, Inmaculada and España-Romero, Vanesa 2016. Forearm muscle oxidative capacity index predicts sport rock-climbing performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-016-3403-1
The effect of potential fall distance on hormonal response in rock climbing
Baláš, Jiří, Giles, David, Chrastinová, Leona, Kárníková, Kateřina, Kodejška, Jan, Hlaváčková, Alžběta, Vomáčko, Ladislav and Draper, Nick 2016. The effect of potential fall distance on hormonal response in rock climbing. Journal of Sports Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1206667
Current understanding in climbing psychophysiology research
Giles, David, Draper, Nick, Gilliver, Peter, Taylor, Nicola, Mitchell, James, Birch, Linda, Woodhead, Joseph, Blackwell, Gavin and Hamlin, Michael J. 2014. Current understanding in climbing psychophysiology research. Sports Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/19346182.2014.968166
Joy and calm: how an evolutionary functional model of affect regulation informs positive emotions in nature
Richardson, Miles, McEwan, Kirsten, Maratos, Frances A. and Sheffield, David 2016. Joy and calm: how an evolutionary functional model of affect regulation informs positive emotions in nature. Evolutionary Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0065-5
Validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor to measure RR intervals at rest
Neil, William, Giles, David and Draper, Nick 2015. Validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor to measure RR intervals at rest. European Journal of Applied Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3303-9
Do therapeutic imagery practices affect physiological and emotional indicators of threat in high self-critics?
Duarte, Joana, McEwan, Kirsten, Barnes, Christopher, Gilbert, Paul and Maratos, Frances A. 2015. Do therapeutic imagery practices affect physiological and emotional indicators of threat in high self-critics? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12043
An exploration of the processing of compassionate and critical faces
McEwan, Kirsten 2012. An exploration of the processing of compassionate and critical faces. Thesis
Facial expressions depicting compassionate and critical emotions: the development and validation of a new emotional face stimulus set
McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Paul, Dandeneau, Stephane, Lipka, Sigrid, Maratos, Frances A., Paterson, Kevin B. and Baldwin, Mark 2014. Facial expressions depicting compassionate and critical emotions: the development and validation of a new emotional face stimulus set. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088783