The development of the Japanese version of the compassionate engagement and action scales

Journal article


Asano, Kenichi, Kotera, Y., Tsuchiya, Masao, Ishimura, Ikuo, Lin, Shuzhen, Matsumoto, Yuki, Matos, Marcela, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul 2020. The development of the Japanese version of the compassionate engagement and action scales. PLos ONE. 15 (4), p. e0230875. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230875
AuthorsAsano, Kenichi, Kotera, Y., Tsuchiya, Masao, Ishimura, Ikuo, Lin, Shuzhen, Matsumoto, Yuki, Matos, Marcela, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul
Abstract

The last few years have seen increasing research on self-report measures of compassion. The Compassionate Engagement and Action Scale (CEAS) is rooted in an evolutionary approach to compassion, which focuses on the competencies of compassion those are engagement with distress or suffering, and taking action to alleviate and prevent it. This study sought to validate the CEAS in a Japanese population using a cross-sectional design. A total of 279 students (82 males, 191 females, 6 unknown) answered self-report questionnaires, including the Japanese version of CEAS. We found single-factor structures for compassion for others scales, compassion from others scales, and compassion for self scales. All scales were found to have acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and construct validity. Even though some limitations, these results indicate that the Japanese version of CEAS is an adequately constructed and useful measure to assess compassionate engagement and action toward others, from others, and for the self with Japanese population.

Keywordscompassion; Japanese compassion engagement; competencies of compassion
Year2020
JournalPLos ONE
Journal citation15 (4), p. e0230875
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN1932-6203
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0230875
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10545/624692
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
hdl:10545/624692
Publication dates01 Apr 2020
Publication process dates
Deposited08 Apr 2020, 11:40
Accepted10 Mar 2020
Rights

Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International

ContributorsMejiro University, The Japanese Centre for Compassionate Mind Research and Training, University of Derby, Advantage Risk Management Company Limited, TokyoSeitoku University, University of Tsukuba, Tokushima Bunri University and University of Coimbra
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Kotera, Y., Van Laethem, Michelle and Ohshima, Remi 2020. Cross-cultural comparison of mental health between Japanese and Dutch workers: Relationships with mental health shame, self-compassion, work engagement and motivation. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management. https://doi.org/10.1108/CCSM-02-2020-0055
Commentary: A wellbeing champion and the role of self-reflective practice for ICU nurses during COVID-19 and beyond
Wharton, Ciara, Kotera, Y. and Brennan, Sharon 2020. Commentary: A wellbeing champion and the role of self-reflective practice for ICU nurses during COVID-19 and beyond. Nursing in Critical Care. https://doi.org/10.1111/nicc.12563
Psychological Impacts of the New Ways of Working (NWW): A Systematic Review
Kotera, Y. and Correa Vione, Katia 2020. Psychological Impacts of the New Ways of Working (NWW): A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17 (14), p. 5080. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145080
Commentary: Suggesting shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) for treating addiction
Kotera, Y. and Rhodes, Christine 2020. Commentary: Suggesting shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) for treating addiction. Addictive Behaviors. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106556
Changes in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Italy using GIS-based maps
Martellucci, Cecilia Acuti, Sah, Ranjit, Rabaan, Ali A., Dhama, Kuldeep, Casalone, Cristina, Arteaga-Livias, Kovy, Sawano, Toyoaki, Ozaki, Akihiko, Bhandari, Divya, Higuchi, Asaka, Kotera, Y., Fathah, Zareena, Roy, Namrata, Ur Rahman, Mohammed Ateeq, Tanimoto, Tetsuya and Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J. 2020. Changes in the spatial distribution of COVID-19 incidence in Italy using GIS-based maps. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 19 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12941-020-00373-z
Research proposal: qualitative investigation into internet-based interventions for professional dementia caregivers' wellbeing
Aledeh, Muhammad and Kotera, Y. 2020. Research proposal: qualitative investigation into internet-based interventions for professional dementia caregivers' wellbeing. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Mental health in the UK police force: A qualitative investigation into the stigma with mental illness
Edwards, Ann-Marie and Kotera, Y. 2020. Mental health in the UK police force: A qualitative investigation into the stigma with mental illness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00214-x
Mental health of Irish students: Self-criticism as a complete mediator in mental health attitudes and caregiver identity
Kotera, Y. and Maughan, Geraldine 2020. Mental health of Irish students: Self-criticism as a complete mediator in mental health attitudes and caregiver identity. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Study protocol: a pilot study investigating mental health in the UK police force
Edwards, Ann-Marie and Kotera, Y. 2020. Study protocol: a pilot study investigating mental health in the UK police force. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Kotera, Y., Richardson, Miles and Sheffield, David 2020. Effects of shinrin-yoku (forest bathing) and nature therapy on mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00363-4
Underestimation of COVID-19 cases in Japan: an analysis of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 among 47 prefectures in Japan
Sawano, Toyoaki, Kotera, Y., Ozaki, Akihiko, Murayama, Anju, Tanimoto, Tetsuya, Sah, Ranjit and Wang, Jiwei 2020. Underestimation of COVID-19 cases in Japan: an analysis of RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 among 47 prefectures in Japan. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa209
Positive psychology for mental wellbeing of uk therapeutic students: Relationships with engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2020. Positive psychology for mental wellbeing of uk therapeutic students: Relationships with engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00466-y
Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal
Sah, Ranjit, Sigdel, Shailendra, Ozaki, Akihiko, Kotera, Y., Bhandari, Divya, Regmi, Priyanka, Mehta, Rachana, Adhikari, Mahesh, Roy, Namrta, Dhama, Kuldeep, Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso and Dhakal, Rachana 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on tourism in Nepal. Journal of Travel Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa105
Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline, Rhodes, Christine, Williams, Alan, Chircop, James, Spink, Rachel, Rawson, Rebecca and Okere, Uche 2020. Dealing with isolation using online morning huddles for university lecturers during physical distancing by COVID-19 field notes. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning.
English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]
Fido, Dean, Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2020. English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample [Protocol]. Concurrent Disorders Society.
Exploring the international utility of progressing compassionate mind training in school settings: a comparison of implementation effectiveness of the same curricula in the UK and Portugal
Maratos, Frances A., Matos, Marcela, Alberquerque, Isabel, Wood, Wendy, Palmeira, Lara, Cuna, Marina, Lima, Margarida and Gilbert, Paul 2020. Exploring the international utility of progressing compassionate mind training in school settings: a comparison of implementation effectiveness of the same curricula in the UK and Portugal. The Psychology of Education Review.
Ethical judgement and intent in business school students: the role of the psyche?
Conway, E. and Kotera, Y. 2020. Ethical judgement and intent in business school students: the role of the psyche? International Journal of Ethics Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40889-020-00094-z
A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine
Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2020. A case report of cognitive behavioural therapy for a Japanese female patient suffering from migraine. Journal of Concurrent Disorders.
Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience
Kotera, Y., Ting, Su-Hie and Neary, S. 2020. Mental health of Malaysian university students: UK comparison, and relationship between negative mental health attitudes, self-compassion, and resilience. Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-020-00547-w
Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2020. Revisiting the self-compassion scale-short form: Stronger associations with self-inadequacy and resilience. SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42399-020-00309-w
Differences in the semantics of prosocial words: an exploration of compassion and kindness
Gilbert, Paul, Basran, Jaskaran, MacArthur, Michael and Kirby, James N. 2019. Differences in the semantics of prosocial words: an exploration of compassion and kindness. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01191-x
The efficacy of a compassion-focused therapy–based intervention in reducing psychopathic traits and disruptive behavior: a clinical case study with a juvenile detainee
Ribeiro da Silva, Diana, Rijo, Daniel, Castilho, Paula and Gilbert, Paul 2019. The efficacy of a compassion-focused therapy–based intervention in reducing psychopathic traits and disruptive behavior: a clinical case study with a juvenile detainee. Clinical Case Studies. 18 (5), pp. 323-343. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650119849491
Distinguishing shame, humiliation and guilt: an evolutionary functional analysis and compassion focused Interventions
Gilbert, Paul 2019. Distinguishing shame, humiliation and guilt: an evolutionary functional analysis and compassion focused Interventions. in: Springer International Publishing.
Treating hoarding disorder with compassion‐focused therapy: A pilot study examining treatment feasibility, acceptability, and exploring treatment effects
Chou, Chia‐Ying, Tsoh, Janice Y., Shumway, Martha, Smith, Lauren C., Chan, Joanne, Delucchi, Kevin, Tirch, Dennis, Gilbert, Paul and Mathews, Carol A. 2019. Treating hoarding disorder with compassion‐focused therapy: A pilot study examining treatment feasibility, acceptability, and exploring treatment effects. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12228
‘A definite feel-it moment’: Embodiment, externalization and emotion during chair-work in compassion-focused therapy
Bell, Tobyn, Montague, Jane, Elander, James and Gilbert, Paul 2019. ‘A definite feel-it moment’: Embodiment, externalization and emotion during chair-work in compassion-focused therapy. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research. https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12248
The role of compassionate and self-image goals in predicting psychological controlling and facilitative parenting styles.
Kirby, James, Grzazek, Olivia and Gilbert, Paul 2019. The role of compassionate and self-image goals in predicting psychological controlling and facilitative parenting styles. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01041
Multiple group IRT measurement invariance analysis of the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale in thirteen international samples
Halamová, Júlia, Kanovský, Martin, Gilbert, Paul, Troop, Nicholas, Zuroff, David C., Petrocchi, Nicola, Hermanto, Nicola, Krieger, Tobias, Kirby, James, Asano, Kenichi, Matos, Marcela, Yu, FuYa, Sommers-Spijkerman, Marion, Shahar, Ben, Basran, Jaskaran and Kupeli, Nuriye 2019. Multiple group IRT measurement invariance analysis of the forms of self-criticising/attacking and self-reassuring scale in thirteen international samples. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-019-00319-1
The development of the compassion focused therapy therapist competence rating scale
Horwood, Victoria, Allan, Steven, Goss, Kenneth and Gilbert, Paul 2019. The development of the compassion focused therapy therapist competence rating scale. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12230
The evolution of prosocial and antisocial competitive behaviour and the emergence of prosocial and antisocial leadership styles
Gilbert, Paul and Basran, Jaskaran 2019. The evolution of prosocial and antisocial competitive behaviour and the emergence of prosocial and antisocial leadership styles. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00610
Human evolution and culture in relationship to shame in the parenting role: Implications for psychology and psychotherapy
Kirby, James N., Sampson, Hayley, Day, Jamin, Hayes, Alan and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Human evolution and culture in relationship to shame in the parenting role: Implications for psychology and psychotherapy. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12223
Psychotherapy for the 21st century: An integrative, evolutionary, contextual, biopsychosocial approach
Gilbert, Paul 2019. Psychotherapy for the 21st century: An integrative, evolutionary, contextual, biopsychosocial approach. Psychology and Psychotherapy. 92 (2). https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.2019.92.issue-2
Building an integrative science for psychotherapy for the 21st-century: Preface and introduction
Gilbert, Paul and Kirby, James 2019. Building an integrative science for psychotherapy for the 21st-century: Preface and introduction. Psychology and Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12225
Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism
McEwan, Kirsten, Dandeneau, Stephane, Gilbert, Paul, Maratos, Frances, Andrew, Lucy, Chotai, Shivani and Elander, James 2019. Searching compassion in a crowd: Evaluation of a novel compassion visual search task to reduce self-criticism. EC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY.
Imagining one's compassionate self and coping with life difficulties
Gilbert, Paul and Basran, Jaskaran 2018. Imagining one's compassionate self and coping with life difficulties. EC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY.
A proof‐of‐concept pilot randomized comparative trial of brief Internet‐based compassionate mind training and cognitive‐behavioral therapy for perinatal and intending to become pregnant women
Kelman, Alex, R., Evare, Benjamin, S., Barrera, Alinne, Z., Munoz, Ricardo, F. and Gilbert, Paul 2018. A proof‐of‐concept pilot randomized comparative trial of brief Internet‐based compassionate mind training and cognitive‐behavioral therapy for perinatal and intending to become pregnant women. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2185
Explorations into the nature and function of compassion
Gilbert, Paul 2018. Explorations into the nature and function of compassion. Current Opinion in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.12.002
Self-reassurance, not self-esteem, serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms
Petrocchi, Nicola, Dentale, Francesco and Gilbert, Paul 2018. Self-reassurance, not self-esteem, serves as a buffer between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Psychology and Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12186
Compassionate faces: Evidence for distinctive facial expressions associated with specific prosocial motivations
Falconer, Caroline, J., Lobmaier, Janek, S., Cristoforou, Marina, Kamboj, Sunjeev, K., King, John, A., Gilbert, Paul and Brewin, Chris, R. 2018. Compassionate faces: Evidence for distinctive facial expressions associated with specific prosocial motivations. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210283
Commentary Regarding Wilson et al. (2018) 'Effectiveness of ‘Self-Compassion’ Related Therapies: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” All Is Not as It Seems
Kirby, J and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Commentary Regarding Wilson et al. (2018) 'Effectiveness of ‘Self-Compassion’ Related Therapies: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” All Is Not as It Seems. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-1088-8
Compassion Focused Approaches to Working With Distressing Voices
Heriot-Maitland, Charles, McCarthy-Jones, Simon, Longden, Eleanor and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Compassion Focused Approaches to Working With Distressing Voices. Frontiers in Psychology. 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00152
Styles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority.
Basran, Jaskaran, Pires, Claudia, Matos, Marcela, McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Styles of leadership, fears of compassion, and competing to avoid inferiority. Frontiers in Psychology. 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02460
The factor structure of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale in thirteen distinct populations.
Halamová, Júlia, Kanovský, Martin, Gilbert, Paul, Troop, Nicholas A., Zuroff, David C., Hermanto, Nicola, Petrocchi, Nicola, Sommers-Spijkerman, Marion, Kirby, James N., Shahar, Ben, Krieger, Tobias, Matos, Marcela, Asano, Kenichi, Yu, FuYa, Basran, Jaskaran and Kupeli, Nuriye 2018. The factor structure of the Forms of Self-Criticising/Attacking & Self-Reassuring Scale in thirteen distinct populations. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 40 (4), pp. 736-751. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-018-9686-2
Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample
Rhodes, Christine and Kotera, Y. 2019. Pathways to sex addiction: Relationships with adverse childhood experience, attachment, narcissism, self-compassion and motivation in a gender-balanced sample. Sexual Addiction & Compulsivity. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720162.2019.1615585
Effect of adding a compassion-focused intervention on emotion, eating and weight outcomes in a commercial weight management programme
Duarte, Cristiana, Gilbert, Paul, Stalker, C., Catarino, Francisca, Basran, Jaskaran, Scott, Sarah, Horgan, Graham and Stubbs, R James 2019. Effect of adding a compassion-focused intervention on emotion, eating and weight outcomes in a commercial weight management programme. Journal of Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105319890019
Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Lazzari, Carlo, Kotera, Y. and Thomas, Hywel 2019. Social network analysis of dementia wards in psychiatric hospitals to explore the advancement of personhood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research. https://doi.org/10.2174/1567205016666190612160955
NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study.
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2019. NLP for Japanese workers' mental well-being: pilot study. Mental Health Review Journal. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHRJ-09-2018-0030
Changing attitudes with a MOOC on dementia
Kotera, Y. and Robertshaw, D. 2019. Changing attitudes with a MOOC on dementia. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning.
Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Roles of positive psychology for mental health in UK social work students: self-compassion as a predictor of better mental health. British Journal of Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcz149
How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work
Kotera, Y. and Van Gordon, William 2019. How Japanese managers use NLP in their daily work. in: Taylor & Francis.
Evaluation of a compassionate mind training intervention with school teachers and support staff
Maratos, Frances, Montague, Jane, Ashra, Hajra, Welford, Mary, Wood, Wendy, Barnes, Christopher, Sheffield, David and Gilbert, Paul 2019. Evaluation of a compassionate mind training intervention with school teachers and support staff. Mindfulness. 10, p. 2245–2258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01185-9
Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation
Kotera, Y. and Van Gordon, William 2019. Japanese managers’ experiences of neuro-linguistic programming: a qualitative investigation. The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMHTEP-06-2018-0033
Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health
Kotera, Y. and Ting, Su-Hie 2019. Positive psychology of Malaysian students: impacts of engagement, motivation, self-compassion and wellbeing on mental health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00169-z
Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming
Kotera, Y. and Sweet, Michael 2019. Comparative evaluation of neuro-linguistic programming. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2019.1622075
Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Work-life balance of UK construction workers: Relationship with mental health. Construction Management and Economics. https://doi.org/10.1080/01446193.2019.1625417
Mental health of therapeutic students: relationships with attitudes, self-criticism, self-compassion, and caregiver identity
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Mental health of therapeutic students: relationships with attitudes, self-criticism, self-compassion, and caregiver identity. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2019.1704683
English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample
Fido, Dean, Kotera, Y. and Asano, Kenichi 2019. English translation and validation of the Ikigai-9 in a UK Sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00150-w
Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Sheffield, David 2019. Mental health shame of UK construction workers: Relationship with masculinity, work motivation, and self-compassion. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. https://doi.org/10.5093/jwop2019a15
An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population.
Gilbert, Paul, Cheung, Mimi, Irons, Christopher Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2005. An exploration into depression-focused and anger-focused rumination in relation to depression in a student population. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465804002048
The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia.
Martin, Y., Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Irons, Christopher Paul 2006. The relation of entrapment, shame and guilt to depression, in carers of people with dementia. Aging and Mental Health. https://doi.org/10.1080/13607860500311953
Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender.
Gilbert, Paul, Irons, Christopher Paul, Olsen, K., Gilbert, Jean and McEwan, Kirsten 2006. Interpersonal sensitivities: their link to mood, anger and gender. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608305X43856
Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority.
Bellew, Rebecca, Gilbert, Paul, Mills, Alison, McEwan, Kirsten and Gale, Corinne 2006. Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority. Eating Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1080/10640260600796242
Investigating relationships between perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism, and sensitivity to put-down.
Gilbert, Paul, Durrant, R. and McEwan, Kirsten 2006. Investigating relationships between perfectionism, forms and functions of self-criticism, and sensitivity to put-down. Personality and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.05.004
Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Hay, J, Irons, Christopher Paul and Cheung, M. 2007. Social rank and attachment in people with a bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.508
Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women.
Gilbert, Paul, Bhundia, Rakhee, Mitra, Ranjana, McEwan, Kirsten, Irons, Christopher Paul and Sanghera, Jasvinder 2007. Cultural differences in shame-focused attitudes towards mental health problems in Asian and Non-Asian student women. Mental Health Religion & Culture. https://doi.org/10.1080/13694670500415124
Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students.
Mills, Alison, Gilbert, Paul, Bellew, Rebecca, McEwan, Kirsten and Gale, Corinne 2007. Paranoid beliefs and self-criticism in students. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.537
Development of a striving to avoid inferiority scale.
Gilbert, Paul, Broomhead, Claire, Irons, Christopher Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Bellew, Rebecca, Mills, Alison, Gale, Corinne and Knibb, Rebecca C. 2007. Development of a striving to avoid inferiority scale. British Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466606X157789
A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery.
Rockliff, Helen, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Lightman, Stafford and Glover, David 2008. A pilot exploration of heart rate variability and salivary cortisol responses to compassion-focused imagery. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation.
Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Mitra, Ranjana, Franks, Leigh, Richter, Anne and Rockliff, Helen 2008. Feeling safe and content: A specific affect regulation system? Relationship to depression, anxiety, stress, and self-criticism. The Journal of Positive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760801999461
The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Bellew, Rebecca, Mills, Alison and Gale, Corinne 2009. The dark side of competition: How competitive behaviour and striving to avoid inferiority are linked to depression, anxiety, stress and self-harm. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608308X379806
An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Mitra, Ranjana, Richter, Anne, Franks, Leigh, Mills, Alison, Bellew, Rebecca and Gale, Corinne 2009. An exploration of different types of positive affect in students and patients with bipolar disorder. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation.
Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology.
Richter, Anne, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2009. Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608308X395213
Striving and competing and its relationship to self-harm in young adults.
Williams, Katie, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2009. Striving and competing and its relationship to self-harm in young adults. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2009.2.3.282
Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Irons, Christopher Paul, Bhundia, Rakhee, Christie, Rachael, Broomhead, Claire and Rockliff, Helen 2010. Self-harm in a mixed clinical population: The roles of self-criticism, shame, and social rank. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466509X479771
Effects of intranasal oxytocin on compassion focused imagery.
Rockliff, Helen, Karl, Anke, McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Jean, Matos, Marcela and Gilbert, Paul 2011. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on compassion focused imagery. Emotion. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023861
Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Matos, Marcela and Rivis, Amanda 2011. Fears of compassion: development of three self-report measures. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1348/147608310X526511
The relationship between self-concealment and disclosure, early experiences, attachement, and social comparison.
Cruddas, Sarah, Gilbert, Paul and McEwan, Kirsten 2012. The relationship between self-concealment and disclosure, early experiences, attachement, and social comparison. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2012.5.1.28
An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology.
McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Paul and Duarte, Joana 2011. An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.2011.02010.x
An exploration of group-based compassion focused therapy for a heterogeneous range of clients presenting to a community mental health team.
Judge, Lorna, Cleghorn, Ailish, McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2012. An exploration of group-based compassion focused therapy for a heterogeneous range of clients presenting to a community mental health team. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2012.5.4.420
Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Gibbons, L., Duarte, Joana and Matos, Marcela 2011. Fears of compassion and happiness in relation to alexithymia, mindfulness, and self-criticism. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.2011.02046.x
Evaluation of a web-based self-compassion intervention to reduce student assessment anxiety.
McEwan, Kirsten, Elander, James and Gilbert, Paul 2018. Evaluation of a web-based self-compassion intervention to reduce student assessment anxiety. Interdisciplinary Education and Psychology.
Human nature and suffering.
Gilbert, Paul 2016. Human nature and suffering. Routledge.
Compassion: Concepts, research and applications.
Gilbert, Paul 2017. Compassion: Concepts, research and applications. Routledge.
An evolutionary approach to emotion in mental health with a focus on affiliative emotions.
Gilbert, Paul 2015. An evolutionary approach to emotion in mental health with a focus on affiliative emotions. Emotion Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073915576552
Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample.
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca, Baião, Rita and Palmeira, Lara 2013. Fears of happiness and compassion in relationship with depression, alexithymia, and attachment security in a depressed sample. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12037
Compassion-focused therapy: Preface and introduction for special section.
Gilbert, Paul 2014. Compassion-focused therapy: Preface and introduction for special section. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12045
Cultivating the compassionate self against depression: An exploration of processes of change.
Matos, Marcela, Duarte, Joana, Duarte, Cristiana, Pinto-Gouveia, José and Gilbert, Paul 2017. Cultivating the compassionate self against depression: An exploration of processes of change. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.02.344
Development and validation of the forms of self-criticizing / attacking and self-reassuring scale - Short form.
Sommers-Spijkerman, Marion, Trompetter, Hester, ten Klooster, Peter, Schreurs, Karlein, Gilbert, Paul and Bohlmeijer, Ernst 2017. Development and validation of the forms of self-criticizing / attacking and self-reassuring scale - Short form. Psychological Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000514
Self-disgust, self-hatred, and compassion focused therapy.
Gilbert, Paul 2015. Self-disgust, self-hatred, and compassion focused therapy. in: Karnac Books.
Compassion, fears, blocks and resistances: An evolutionary investigation.
Gilbert, Paul and Mascaro, Jennifer 2017. Compassion, fears, blocks and resistances: An evolutionary investigation. in: Oxford University Press.
Living like crazy
Gilbert, Paul 2017. Living like crazy. Annwyn House.
The design of compassionate care.
Crawford, Paul, Brown, Brian, Kvangarsnes, Marit and Gilbert, Paul 2014. The design of compassionate care. Journal of Clinical Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12632
How one experiences and embodies compassionate mind training influences its effectiveness.
Matos, Marcela, Duarte, Joana, Duarte, Cristiana, Gilbert, Paul and Pinto-Gouveia, José 2017. How one experiences and embodies compassionate mind training influences its effectiveness. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0864-1
‘Do you practice what you preach?’ A qualitative exploration of therapists' personal practice of compassion focused therapy.
Gale, Corinne, Schröder, Thomas and Gilbert, Paul 2015. ‘Do you practice what you preach?’ A qualitative exploration of therapists' personal practice of compassion focused therapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1993
A qualitative study of the understanding and use of ‘compassion focused coping strategies’ in people who suffer from serious weight difficulties.
Gilbert, Jean, Stubbs, James, Gale, Corinne, Gilbert, Paul, Dunk, Laura and Thomson, Louise 2014. A qualitative study of the understanding and use of ‘compassion focused coping strategies’ in people who suffer from serious weight difficulties. Journal of Compassionate Health Care. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40639-014-0009-5
The impact of self-criticism and self-reassurance on weight-related affect and well-being in participants of a commercial weight management programme.
Duarte, Cristiana, Stubbs, James, Pinto-Gouveia, José, Matos, Marcela, Gale, Corinne, Morris, Liam and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The impact of self-criticism and self-reassurance on weight-related affect and well-being in participants of a commercial weight management programme. Obesity Facts. https://doi.org/10.1159/000454834
A brief outline of the evolutionary approach for compassion focused therapy.
Gilbert, Paul 2017. A brief outline of the evolutionary approach for compassion focused therapy. EC PSYCHOLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY.
Comparing brief internet-based compassionate mind training and cognitive behavioral therapy for perinatal women: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Kelman, Alex R, Stanley, Meagan L, Barrera, Alinne Z, Cree, Michelle, Heineberg, Yotam and Gilbert, Paul 2016. Comparing brief internet-based compassionate mind training and cognitive behavioral therapy for perinatal women: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols. https://doi.org/10.2196/resprot.5332
Body dysmorphic disorder: The functional and evolutionary context in phenomenology and a compassionate mind.
Veale, David and Gilbert, Paul 2013. Body dysmorphic disorder: The functional and evolutionary context in phenomenology and a compassionate mind. Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2013.11.005
The effect of shame and shame memories on paranoid ideation and social anxiety.
Matos, Marcela, Pinto-Gouveia, José and Gilbert, Paul 2012. The effect of shame and shame memories on paranoid ideation and social anxiety. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1766
A descriptive study of feelings of arrested escape (entrapment) and arrested anger in people presenting to an emergency department following an episode of self-harm.
Clarke, Martin, McEwan, Kirsten, Ness, Jennifer, Waters, Keith, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul 2016. A descriptive study of feelings of arrested escape (entrapment) and arrested anger in people presenting to an emergency department following an episode of self-harm. Frontiers in Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00155
Attitudes towards mental health problems scale: Confirmatory factor analysis and validation in the Portuguese population.
Cabral Master, Joana Moura, Barreto Carvalho, Célia Maria de Oliveira, Motta, Carolina Dall’Antonia, Sousa, Marina Correia and Gilbert, Paul 2016. Attitudes towards mental health problems scale: Confirmatory factor analysis and validation in the Portuguese population. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation. https://doi.org/10.1080/15487768.2016.1197860
Development of a compassion-focused and contextual behavioural environment and validation of the Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS).
Veale, David, Miles, Sarah, Naismith, Iona, Pieta, Maria and Gilbert, Paul 2016. Development of a compassion-focused and contextual behavioural environment and validation of the Therapeutic Environment Scales (TESS). BJPsych Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1192/pb.bp.114.048736
Embodying self-compassion within virtual reality and its effects on patients with depression.
Falconer, Caroline J., Rovira, Aitor, King, John A., Gilbert, Paul, Antley, Angus, Fearon, Pasco, Ralph, Neil, Slater, Mel and Brewin, Chris R. 2018. Embodying self-compassion within virtual reality and its effects on patients with depression. BJPsych Open. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjpo.bp.115.002147
A tailored compassion-focused therapy program for sexual minority young adults with depressive symotomatology: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Pepping, Christopher A., Lyons, Anthony, McNair, Ruth, Kirby, James N., Petrocchi, Nicola and Gilbert, Paul 2017. A tailored compassion-focused therapy program for sexual minority young adults with depressive symotomatology: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-017-0175-2
Measuring competitive self-focus perspective taking, submissive compassion and compassion goals.
Gilbert, Paul, Catarino, Francisca, Sousa, Joana, Ceresatto, Laura, Moore, Rosalind and Basran, Jaskaran 2017. Measuring competitive self-focus perspective taking, submissive compassion and compassion goals. Journal of Compassionate Health Care. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40639-017-0034-2
Mental wellbeing of caring profession students: relationship with caregiver identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline and Van Gordon, William 2018. Mental wellbeing of caring profession students: relationship with caregiver identity, self-compassion, and intrinsic motivation. Mindfulness & Compassion.
The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2018. The relationship between work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. International Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling.
Mental health attitudes, self-criticism, compassion and role identity among UK social work students.
Kotera, Y., Green, Pauline Catherine and Sheffield, David 2018. Mental health attitudes, self-criticism, compassion and role identity among UK social work students. The British Journal Of Social Work. https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcy072
Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health.
Kotera, Y., Conway, E. and Van Gordon, William 2018. Ethical judgement in UK business students: relationship with motivation, self-compassion and mental health. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-0034-2
The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes.
Kotera, Y., Sheffield, David and Van Gordon, William 2018. The applications of neuro-linguistic programming in organizational settings: A systematic review of psychological outcomes. Human Resource Development Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21334
Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2018. Motivation types and mental health of UK hospitality workers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-018-9874-z
Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers.
Kotera, Y., Gilbert, Paul, Asano, Kenichi, Ishimura, Ikuo and Sheffield, David 2018. Self-criticism and self-reassurance as mediators between mental health attitudes and symptoms: Attitudes towards mental health problems in Japanese workers. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12355
Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I.
Van Gordon, William, Shonin, Edo, Diouri, Sofiane, Garcia-Campayo, Javier, Kotera, Y. and Griffiths, Mark D. 2018. Ontological addiction theory: Attachment to me, mine, and I. Journal of Behavioral Addictions. https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.7.2018.45
Mental health of UK university business students: Relationship with shame, motivation and self-compassion
Kotera, Y., Conway, E. and Van Gordon, William 2018. Mental health of UK university business students: Relationship with shame, motivation and self-compassion. Journal of Education for Business. https://doi.org/10.1080/08832323.2018.1496898
Exploring emptiness and its effects on non-attachment, mystical experiences, and psycho-spiritual wellbeing: a quantitative and qualitative study of advanced meditators.
Van Gordon, William, Shonin, Edo, Dunn, Thomas J., Sapthiang, Supakyada, Kotera, Y., Garcia-Campayo, Javier and Sheffield, David 2018. Exploring emptiness and its effects on non-attachment, mystical experiences, and psycho-spiritual wellbeing: a quantitative and qualitative study of advanced meditators. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2018.12.003
Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey.
Pates, John, Kotera, Y. and Clancy, David 2018. Development and validation of the inspirational leaders survey. International Journal of Work Innovation. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWI.2017.10012540
Shame and the vulnerable self in medical contexts: the compassionate solution.
Gilbert, Paul 2017. Shame and the vulnerable self in medical contexts: the compassionate solution. Medical Humanities. https://doi.org/10.1136/medhum-2016-011159
Endogenous oxytocin is associated with the experience of compassion and recalled upbringing in Borderline Personality Disorder
Ebert, Andreas, Edel, Marc-Andreas, Gilbert, Paul and Brüne, Martin 2017. Endogenous oxytocin is associated with the experience of compassion and recalled upbringing in Borderline Personality Disorder. Depression and Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22683
Psychological and physiological effects of compassionate mind training: A pilot randomised controlled study
Matos, Marcela, Duarte, Cristiana, Duarte, Joana, Pinto-Gouveia, José, Petrocchi, Nicola, Basran, Jaskaran and Gilbert, Paul 2017. Psychological and physiological effects of compassionate mind training: A pilot randomised controlled study. Mindfulness. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0745-7
The impact of shame, self-criticism and social rank on eating behaviours in overweight and obese women participating in a weight management programme
Duarte, Cristiana, Matos, Marcela, Stubbs, James, Gale, Corinne, Morris, Liam, Gouveia, Jose Pinto and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The impact of shame, self-criticism and social rank on eating behaviours in overweight and obese women participating in a weight management programme. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0167571
Compassion focused therapy with children and adolescents
Carona, Carlos, Rijo, Daniel, Salvador, Céu, Castilho, Paula and Gilbert, Paul 2017. Compassion focused therapy with children and adolescents. BJPsych Advances. https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.115.015420
Exploring compassion focused therapy in forensic settings: An evolutionary and social-contextual approach.
Gilbert, Paul 2017. Exploring compassion focused therapy in forensic settings: An evolutionary and social-contextual approach. in: Routledge.
The emergence of the compassion focused therapies
Kirby, James N. and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The emergence of the compassion focused therapies. in: Gilbert, Paul (ed.) Routledge.
Shyness, social anxiety, and social phobia
Henderson, Lynne, Gilbert, Paul and Zimbardo, Philip 2014. Shyness, social anxiety, and social phobia. in: Academic Press.
Compassionate care: The theory and the reality.
Cole-King, Alys and Gilbert, Paul 2014. Compassionate care: The theory and the reality. in: Routledge.
Compassionate mind coaching
Anstiss, Tim and Gilbert, Paul 2014. Compassionate mind coaching. in: Kogan Page.
Spirituality and the evolution of compassion.
Gilbert, Paul and Gilbert, Hannah 2015. Spirituality and the evolution of compassion. in: Praeger.
Cruelty, evolution, and religion: The challenge for the new spiritualities
Gilbert, Paul and Gilbert, Hannah 2015. Cruelty, evolution, and religion: The challenge for the new spiritualities. in: Praeger.
Compassion as a social mentality: An evolutionary approach
Gilbert, Paul 2017. Compassion as a social mentality: An evolutionary approach. in: Gilbert, Paul (ed.) Routledge.
Compassion: Definitions and controversies
Gilbert, Paul 2017. Compassion: Definitions and controversies. in: Gilbert, Paul (ed.) Routledge.
Negotiating in the world of mixed beliefs and value systems: A compassion-focused model
Gilbert, Paul 2014. Negotiating in the world of mixed beliefs and value systems: A compassion-focused model. in: Springer.
Evolutionary models: Practical and conceptual utility for the treatment and study of social anxiety disorder
Gilbert, Paul 2014. Evolutionary models: Practical and conceptual utility for the treatment and study of social anxiety disorder. in: Wiley Blackwell.
The early memories of warmth and safeness scale for adolescents: Cross-sample validation of the complete and brief versions
Vagos, Paula, Ribeiro da Silva, Diana, Brazão, Nélio, Rijo, Daniel and Gilbert, Paul 2016. The early memories of warmth and safeness scale for adolescents: Cross-sample validation of the complete and brief versions. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2059
A new therapeutic community: Development of a compassion-focussed and contextual behavioural environment
Veale, David, Gilbert, Paul, Wheatley, Jon and Naismith, Iona 2014. A new therapeutic community: Development of a compassion-focussed and contextual behavioural environment. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1897
Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Other as Shamer Scale across diverse adolescent samples
Vagos, Paula, Ribeiro da Silva, Diana, Brazão, Nélio, Rijo, Daniel and Gilbert, Paul 2016. Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Other as Shamer Scale across diverse adolescent samples. Personality and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.046
A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population
McEwan, Kirsten and Gilbert, Paul 2015. A pilot feasibility study exploring the practising of compassionate imagery exercises in a nonclinical population. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12078
The Other as Shamer Scale – 2: Development and validation of a short version of a measure of external shame
Matos, Marcela, Pinto-Gouveia, José, Gilbert, Paul, Duarte, Cristiana and Figueiredo, Cláudia 2015. The Other as Shamer Scale – 2: Development and validation of a short version of a measure of external shame. Personality and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.037
Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) or ‘ecstasy’ and self-focused compassion: Preliminary steps in the development of a therapeutic psychopharmacology of contemplative practices
Kamboj, Sunjeev K, Kilford, Emma J., Minchin, Stephanie, Moss, Abigail, Lawn, Will, Das, Ravi K., Falconer, Caroline J., Gilbert, Paul, Curran, H Valerie and Freeman, Tom P. 2015. Recreational 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) or ‘ecstasy’ and self-focused compassion: Preliminary steps in the development of a therapeutic psychopharmacology of contemplative practices. Journal of Psychopharmacology. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881115587143
Ability to receive compassion from others buffers the depressogenic effect of self-criticism: A cross-cultural multi-study analysis
Hermanto, Nicola, Zuroff, David C., Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C., Kelly, Allison C., Matos, Marcela, Gilbert, Paul and Koestner, Richard 2016. Ability to receive compassion from others buffers the depressogenic effect of self-criticism: A cross-cultural multi-study analysis. Personality and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.055
An evaluation of the impact of introducing compassion focused therapy to a standard treatment programme for people with eating disorders
Gale, Corinne, Gilbert, Paul, Read, Natalie and Goss, Ken 2012. An evaluation of the impact of introducing compassion focused therapy to a standard treatment programme for people with eating disorders. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.1806
Embodying compassion: A virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive self-criticism
Falconer, Caroline J., Slater, Mel, Rovira, Aitor, King, John A., Gilbert, Paul, Antley, Angus and Brewin, Chris R. 2014. Embodying compassion: A virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive self-criticism. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111933
Compassion motivations: Distinguishing submissive compassion from genuine compassion and its association with shame, submissive behavior, depression, anxiety and stress
Catarino, Francisca, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Baião, Rita 2014. Compassion motivations: Distinguishing submissive compassion from genuine compassion and its association with shame, submissive behavior, depression, anxiety and stress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2014.33.5.399
Rank perception and self-evaluation in eating disorders
Cardi, Valentina, Di Matteo, Rosalia, Gilbert, Paul and Treasure, Janet 2014. Rank perception and self-evaluation in eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1002/eat.22261
Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare
Brown, Brian, Crawford, Paul, Gilbert, Paul, Gilbert, Jean and Gale, Corinne 2013. Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare. Sociology of Health & Illness. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12065
Measurement of external shame: An inside view
Balsamo, Michela, Macchia, Antonella, Carlucci, Leonardo, Picconi, Laura, Tommasi, Marco, Gilbert, Paul and Saggino, Aristide 2014. Measurement of external shame: An inside view. Journal of Personality Assessment. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2014.947650
Forms of self-criticising/attacking & self-reassuring scale: Psychometric properties and normative study
Baião, Rita, Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten and Carvalho, Sérgio 2014. Forms of self-criticising/attacking & self-reassuring scale: Psychometric properties and normative study. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12049
Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health
Gilbert, Paul 2015. Affiliative and prosocial motives and emotions in mental health. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience.
Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca and Baião, Rita 2014. Fears of negative emotions in relation to fears of happiness, compassion, alexithymia and psychopathology in a depressed population: A preliminary study. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.S2-004
Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy
Gilbert, Paul, McEwan, Kirsten, Catarino, Francisca and Baião, Rita 2014. Fears of compassion in a depressed population: Implication for psychotherapy. Journal of Depression and Anxiety. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1044.S2-003
The development of compassionate engagement and action scales for self and others
Gilbert, Paul, Catarino, Francisca, Duarte, Cristiana, Matos, Marcela, Kolts, Russell, Stubbs, James, Ceresatto, Laura, Duarte, Joana, Pinto-Gouveia, José and Basran, Jaskaran 2017. The development of compassionate engagement and action scales for self and others. Journal of Compassionate Health Care. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40639-017-0033-3
The evolution and social dynamics of compassion
Gilbert, Paul 2015. The evolution and social dynamics of compassion. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12176
The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy
Gilbert, Paul 2014. The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12043
The current and future role of heart rate variability for assessing and training compassion
Kirby, James N., Doty, James R., Petrocchi, Nicola and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The current and future role of heart rate variability for assessing and training compassion. Frontiers in Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00040
A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants
Kotera, Y. 2017. A qualitative investigation into the experience of neuro-linguistic programming certification training among Japanese career consultants. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2017.1320781
The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version.
Asano, Kenichi, Tsuchiya, Masao, Ishimura, Ikuo, Lin, Shuzhen, Matsumoto, Yuki, Miyata, Haruko, Kotera, Y., Shimizu, Eiji and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185574
Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers.
Kotera, Y., Adhikari, Prateek and Van Gordon, William 2017. Relationship between types of work motivation and worker profile in UK hospitality workers. Global Academic Excellence.
Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study
Kotera, Y. and Sheffield, David 2017. Disney strategy for Japanese university students' career guidance: a mixed methods pilot study. Journal of the National Institute for Career Education and Counselling. https://doi.org/10.20856/jnicec.3808
The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics
Maratos, Frances A., Duarte, Joana, Barnes, Christopher, McEwan, Kirsten, Sheffield, David and Gilbert, Paul 2017. The physiological and emotional effects of touch: Assessing a hand-massage intervention with high self-critics. Psychiatry Research. 250, pp. 221-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.066
Do therapeutic imagery practices affect physiological and emotional indicators of threat in high self-critics?
Duarte, Joana, McEwan, Kirsten, Barnes, Christopher, Gilbert, Paul and Maratos, Frances A. 2015. Do therapeutic imagery practices affect physiological and emotional indicators of threat in high self-critics? Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.12043
Facial expressions depicting compassionate and critical emotions: the development and validation of a new emotional face stimulus set
McEwan, Kirsten, Gilbert, Paul, Dandeneau, Stephane, Lipka, Sigrid, Maratos, Frances A., Paterson, Kevin B. and Baldwin, Mark 2014. Facial expressions depicting compassionate and critical emotions: the development and validation of a new emotional face stimulus set. PLos ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088783
Predictors of painkiller dependence among people with pain in the general population
Elander, James, Duarte, Joana, Maratos, Frances A. and Gilbert, Paul 2013. Predictors of painkiller dependence among people with pain in the general population. Pain Medicine. 15 (4), p. 613–624. https://doi.org/10.1111/pme.12263
Having a word with yourself: Neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance
Longe, O., Maratos, F.A., Gilbert, P., Evans, G., Volker, F., Rockliff, H. and Rippon, G. 2010. Having a word with yourself: Neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance. NeuroImage. 49 (2), pp. 1849-1856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.019